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This section will give you a general introduction to Ælis.

Geneity A priori
Morphological typology Oligo-analytic
Morphosyntactic alignment Fluid-S Active-stative
Head-directionality Head-initial
Word order n/a
# Grammatical cases 4
# Grammatical genders (1)
ISO 639-3 qae
Creator Frederic Gesell

eG1lIS (IPA: eg'ae̯.lis) is a constructed language or conlang. In English, it is denominated as either "Ælis" (pronounced as EYE-liss or also AY-liss) or "the Ælis language".

Ælis aims to be, among others, an artlang, aesthetically pleasing to both the ear and the eye. It is probable that any speaker native to any language group in the world would have to make about the same effort learning the language, which advocates its candidacy as a future IAL. More than anything, however, Ælis is an experimental and philosophical language with the aim to incite anyone who comes near to start exploring the boundaries of human grammar, inviting them to contemplate about alternative grammatical models to the ones they grew up with.

Especially aficionados of theoretical linguistics will like to take a look under the hood and find out how a language can function without nouns, adjectives, verbs or adverbs in a grammatical sense; without verb conjugations, inflections, declensions, tenses, moods, voices or tones; with a completely free intonation and virtually no rules for emphasis in general; with a free word order; and all of this in continuous writing (i.e. no spaces to divide words and no punctuation to separate clauses and sentences). The Ælis grammar is not easier, nor is it more difficult than Western patterns. It is simply very different.

I have always had an innate affinity with language, but it was my educational career as a Master of Arts in Translation that definitely boosted my fascination not only for languages in general, but for grammar in particular. This doesn't mean that I'm a nitpicker when it comes to grammatical rules (since they don't always seem to rely on logic), but rather that I like to compare languages and observe how differently they can convey the same thing. This goes not only for the languages that I have studied or that I can speak (because they're all Germanic and Romanic), but for any language with which I've come into contact.

In the summer of 2007, on a trip through Finland, I became aware of the fact that Finnish has no brothers or sisters, hence it cannot be understood by any other natives through resemblance, unlike Spanish and Portuguese, for instance. This soon led me to contemplating about how cool it would be to speak a language that not even compatriots would understand. That's when the idea of a new conlang was born, and I quickly grew ambitious.

Although I wanted this new language to be understood by no-one other than myself, it still had to have a sufficiently consistent grammar so that technically, someone else could learn it. I didn't find it challenging enough to just invent new words; I wanted something completely new, breaking away from everything that the Indo-European model has to offer. A true a priori language, in as many aspects as possible. So I started exploring the possibilities of an 'alternative' grammar, and incorporated several interesting aspects of languages across the world: verbs that don't conjugate according to person in Scandinavian languages; Japanese that has a topic marker; Turkish with its completely regular spelling; German with its high capability to cluster words;…

The more I started taking this project seriously, the more I rejected the idea that only I should speak this language. So I decided to share it with the world.

~ Frederic

The language has changed a lot over the course of the first decade of its existence. Through trial and error, some neat ideas and nifty mechanics that were initially introduced have had to be thrown overboard, either because they turned out not to be viable, or because they were not compatible with each other. Sifting the language over and over slowly unveiled which ideas held priority over others, thus creating the pillars around which the language is built.

Extreme synthesis
I have always liked to build big things with small components. It is the reason I liked playing with things like Legos and K'nex as a child, it is the reason that I produce music as another hobby of mine. The idea found its way into the Ælis language as probably the first one with which the language saw daylight, and it has remained afloat ever since. Taking it a step further than polysynthetic languages, this idea introduced the root word based approach of the morphology.
Free word order
Free word order has been a goal since the beginning. Four years of Latin class in secondary school provided insight how a case system allows a fair amount of liberty with regards to word order.
Easy spelling
A word you read can only be pronounced one way. A word you hear can only be written one way.

Welcome to the , a section intended for you to start learning Ælis. Topics will be presented in accumulative manner, with regular links that invite you to visit the to make an exercise or learn some vocabulary. To get started, choose one of the chapters below, or click here.

In theory, an alphabet contains one character (called a 'letter') for each sound. But in practice, that is not often the case. English is even one of the most notorious examples. The loose tie between phonemes and characters in English orthography becomes clear on at least five different levels.

  • Many letters, if not all, have more than one possible pronunciation:
gum ↔ gem
call ↔ cell
foe ↔ shoe
high ↔ enoughghost
  • Vice-versa, one and the same sound can be represented by more than one letter or letter combination:
  • The presence of certain letters can influence the sound of other letters:
sir ↔ sire
cut ↔ cute
desert ↔ deserted
crow ↔ crowd
  • The pronunciation of words can sometimes depend solely on their meaning or grammatical category:
live (verb ↔ adjective)
wind (verb ↔ noun)
read (present ↔ past tense)
tear (eye secretion ↔ rip in fabric)
  • Letters can be mute:

Another oddity of spellings, especially in various European languages, is that doubling a consonant has an effect on the pronunciation of the preceding vowel. Let's use the example 'rub'. If we put this verb in the past tense, then the letter b has to be doubled in order to preserve the pronunciation of the  u: 'rubbed'. If the b is not doubled, then the u would sound the same as in 'ruby'. This behavior in the spelling of languages can be described with the term phoneme-to-character ratio: the total amount of letters used to represent sounds in comparison to the amount of sounds that these letters can represent.

In English, the ppc ratio is very high, because many letters have more than one possible pronunciation. In Ælis, the pcc ratio is very low. This has the following implications:

  • every character has only one possible pronunciation, always;
  • the presence of certain letters never influences a different letter;
  • no letter is ever mute, all written letters are always pronounced;
  • vice-versa, every letter that is pronounced must always be written;
  • by the sound of a word, you will always know how to spell it;
  • vice-versa, you will always know how to pronounce a written word.

Ælis has its proper writing system, called eG​eN​1lIS egen'ælis. It is written from left to right, and top to bottom.

eGeN1lIS is a so-called featural alphabet. 'Alphabet' means that the characters represent sounds, and that there is one character to represent each sound (like English). 'Featural' means that the letters are written in a way that incorporates visual cues about grammatical aspects. The Ælis alphabet considers itself to have 15 plain letters, of which 6 vowels and 9 consonants. One of the vowels is technically a diphthong, but it is treated as a common vowel. Additionally, some letters can be marked with a diacritic, making up for a total of 21 phonemes native to the language.

Like uppercase and lowercase letters in most alphabets around the world, each of the letters in the Ælis alphabet comes in two shapes. These shapes are called the primary case and the secondary case variant of the letter in question. However, the way in which the cases are used has nothing to do with the use of capital letters in English. More about this in the chapter "".

Every Ælis letter (and case variant) has a name, just like in English, where c is pronounced as 'see', or m is pronounced as 'em'. On top of that, each of the names of the letters of the Ælis alphabet has a unique vowel combination. Therefore, the regular alphabet can function as a spelling alphabet.

Throughout all pages, IPA transcriptions are enclosed in square brackets [ ], the romanization will be enclosed in curly brackets { }.

The following is a list of the letters of the Ælis alphabet.

  • Primary case: the symbol and name for the primary case variant of the letter.
  • Secondary case: the symbol and name for the secondary case variant of the letter.
  • Alph. order: order in which the letter appears when sorting alphabetically.
  • Type: can be one of the following:
    • plain: a regular letter of the alphabet. There are 15 plain letters.
    • voiced: a consonant with a circle-shaped diacritic (.). It is regarded as a voiced version of its voiceless counterpart. The voiced letters are not seen as distinct characters, but they do receive a place in the alphabet. There are 6 voiced letters. In handwriting, the diacritic may float in anywhere above or left of the character, or inside of it if the design allows so.
    • digraph: a sound represented by a double letter. The digraphs are not parts of the alphabet, and exist for the sole purpose of being able to transcribe 'foreign' words (like names) better. The digraphs will never occur in native Ælis words. There are currently 3 digraphs, but this number is not set in stone.
  • IPA: the preferred pronunciation of the sound, represented in IPA notation.
  • Romanization: the symbol used when romanizing Ælis.
  • Audio sample: click to listen to the (preferred) pronunciation of this sound, and the names given to the primary and secondary case variants.
  • Alternative pronunciations: a speaker may use these due to allophony and allomorphy, and/or in case the preferred pronunciation proves too difficult from their native point of view. Tip: use Wikipedia's audio charts (vowels and pulmonic consonants) for reference.
  • Distinguishing feature: because every person has a different handwriting, letters may come in tons of slight variations. The 'distinguishing feature' is the signature trait of the character, which must be present in order to not confuse this letter with others. Visit the 's for an example of Ælis handwriting.
List of characters
ɐ ɑ
The 'leg' must be detached from the rest of the symbol. In the secondary case, it turns into a small steep dash. The dash may become as small as a dot, but it may never be missing.
äæ̯ äɛ̯ äe̞̯ äɪ̯ ɐæ̯ ɐɛ̯ ɐe̞̯ ɐɪ̯ ɑæ̯ ɑɛ̯ ɑe̞̯ ɑɪ̯
The peak at the top points leftwards.
æ ɛ ɪ
A straight or almost straight vertical line, with a small rightwards pointing curl at the bottom. In handwriting, the primary and secondary case may look identical to each other. Not to be confused with l l.
Two separate strokes. The first has a sharp peak upwards, the second runs parallel to the first.
o ɔ
One solid curvy line that goes up, right, down, then dents left, and outward again.
ɯ ʉ ɨ y
This is the only character to have three separate strokes.
The sharp peak pointing toward the top-right.
This is the only character that makes a full curl.
ɭ ʟ
A straight or almost straight vertical line, with a small curl at each end. The top curls right, the bottom curls left. In handwriting, the primary and secondary case may look identical to each other. Not to be confused with e e.
kh q ʡ
This is the only character where the primary case has a different amount of strokes than the second.
th ʈ
d ɖ ð
Somewhat resembling the Latin character m, this character is the only one to have 3 peaks.
r ɽ ɹ ɻ ʀ
ʁ ɦ ħ χ ʜ ʕ
Resembling the Latin character c with an additional small dash or line. The line may not be missing in the secondary case. The rightward-pointing peak in the secondary case is optional, the character may also curl at this point.
ʂ ç ɬ
ʐ ɮ
Also resembles the Latin character c, but misses the extra dash. The primary case is generally a lot bigger than r . Important is the small peak (pointing upwards in the primary case and towards the top-right in the secondary case) which may not be missing.
Two horizontal, parallel strokes tilted upwards. In the secondary case, notice that it is the top stroke that connects to the bottom (unlike F f).
Two straight or nearly straight parallel diagonal strokes. Notice that it is the lower stroke that connects to the bottom (unlike P p).
rom. prim. sec.
a a aie A aio
æ w æoi W æoa
e e euo E eue
i i iau I iae
o o oæa O oæu
u u ueæ U uæi
m m umo M omi
n n ine N enu
l l æla L alu
q q aqa Q aqæ
g g ægu G ugæ
t T etæ T æti
d d ido D oda
r r ore R eri
h h uhi H ihu
s s asi S isa
z z æze Z eze
p p epo P opo
b b ibæ B æbæ
f f ofu F ufe
v v uva V avo

Just like the Latin script has an uppercase and lowercase variant of each letter, the letters of the Ælis alphabet also exist in two forms. The letter cases in Ælis are called the primary case and secondary case. These cases have nothing in common with the way we use uppercase and lowercase letters in the Latin script, though. Instead, they serve as a means to turn the writing into syllabic blocks. Each of these syllabic blocks, in turn, consistutes a morpheme or root word, i.e. one independent, meaningful unit of speech.

The writing mechanism follows one simple rule:

The first letter of every root word is written in the primary case, all the other letters are written in the secondary case.

For example, consider the root word ma. The letters needed are m m and a a. But since these two letters constitute one syllable together, the latter is converted into the secondary case. Therefore, ma:

m + a = mA
m a ma

Conversely, the syllable am is written by use of the primary case a with the secondary case m, therefore:

a + m = aM
a m am

The mechanism applies to syllables with more than two letters as well. For example, the syllable geo is written as:

g + e + o = gEO
g e o geo

There are a total of 5 consonant-vowel sequences that can become a valid syllable.

Syllable structures
consonant + vowel e.g.: tW 'colour'
vowel + consonant e.g.: aM am 'manner'
vowel + vowel e.g.: uE ue 'family'
consonant + vowel + consonant e.g.: lIS lis 'idea'
consonant + vowel + vowel e.g.: dOE doe 'fire'

Given names are exempt from this restriction. See for more info.

One could say that in a way, the grouping of the letters into syllabic blocks creates one combined character for every unit of speech. If anything, it makes it easier for a reader to extract the different syllables out of a string of characters, i.e. identifying the different speech units and their meanings more easily.

In the next step, we'll see how these syllabic blocks can be put side by side, which will bring us to the basics of word building.

In terms of the way words are created, Ælis is an oligoanalytical language.

The oligo- part of this word means that the language is built with a minimal amount of basic speech concepts called root words. Whereas regular languages have up to hundreds of thousands of words, Ælis only has a few hundred. The speech particles can be combined in order to form more complex words.

The analytic part of the word means that there are no bound morphemes. A bound morpheme, for example, is the final 's' in the English word 'house-s'. The letter 's' is used for pluralization, and is a bound morpheme. This means that the letter 's' is not a dictionary word; it only makes sense if it is suffixed to another word. It also doesn't always indicate a plural wherever it appears. After all, there is also another 's' in 'houses' that does not mean 'plural'. But bound morphemes do not exist in Ælis. All root words:

  • are always independent;
  • always have the same meaning or value wherever they appear.

The building block house is the metaphor used to describe how root words are combined to form bigger words with richer meanings, not unlike a puzzle.

Ælis Rom. Meaning
aQ aq 'length'
aQaN aqan length + space ⇒ 'distance'
aQaS aqas length + time ⇒ 'duration'
Ælis Rom. Meaning
uB ub 'energy'
uBuM ubum energy + body ⇒ '(physical) force'
uBeI ubei energy + cognition ⇒ '(thinking) effort'

For the Ælis grammar, the words 'root word', 'particle', 'morpheme', and 'syllable' are synonyms, and are used as such on this page. Note that these four words are anything but synonyms for any grammar other than Ælis'.

nI​uE​3rA ni'​ue'​ira mother
mA​uE​3rA ma'​ue'​ira father
iI​aN​2dA​3rA ii'​an'​eda'​ira rise
iI​aN​1dA​1rA ii'​an'​eda'​æra fall
dO​1qA​aS​dA​3rA do'​æqa'​as​da'​ira tomorrow
dO​1qA​aS​dA​1rA do'​æqa'​as​da'​æra yesterday

An immediate consequence of working with combinations of small root words is that there is a link between semantically related words and lexically similar words. This means: words that look and sound similar to each other will always be similar in meaning as well. The example shows the contrast between English and Ælis.

The root words themselves are broad and somewhat vague in meaning. Or rather: they comprise ideas. For each of the Ælis root words, languages like English might have up to a dozen or even more different translations. They may also correspond to any word type (noun, verb, adjective, adverb,…).

An example is the root word lI li. It comprises the notion of 'origin'. If you encounter this root word in an Ælis word or text, its English translation could be any of the following:

  • start (noun)
  • beginning (noun)
  • origin / origins (noun)
  • departure / departures (noun)
  • start (verb)
  • commence (verb)
  • begin (verb)
  • originate from (verb)
  • come from (verb)
  • initial (adjective)
  • original (adjective)
  • starting (adjective)
  • coming from (adjective)
  • initially (adverb)
  • originally (adverb)
  • from (preposition)
  • etc.

The actual amount of root words that exists is very, very small. The challenge and focus of Ælis lie in the skill of combining such root words in different ways in order to express what you'd like to say. Just like you can build numerous different houses by use of the same bricks, simply by arranging them in a different way. Although the amount of possible ways to combine root words might seem endless, it is not infinite. Not just any random combination of root words will be a meaningful one. After all, if you stack a lot of big blocks on top of a few small ones, a building block house will also fall apart. So the word construction process is subject to a few rules, which ensure stability throughout the language.

The step ladder principle is the term coined for the strict right-branching (or also 'head-initial') morphology of Ælis. Although root words themselves are not bound to one specific word type such as 'noun' or 'adjective', they do receive such a value depending on their position within the string of root words that surround it. The step ladder principle states that if two root words are placed side by side, then:

the first root word will play an independent role, i.e. it will behave not unlike a noun or verb; the second root word will be dependent of the first, not unlike an adjective or adverb.

For example, consider the words tE te (human, person), and uB3rA ub'ira (strength, strong, powerful). The latter of these is already a compound word, but we will disregard that for the time being. If we combine these two words, then the first of the two will be the noun, and the second one will become its adjective:

tE​uB​3rA human>strength te'​ub'​ira strong person

Changing the word order simultaneously means changing these values, so using the same two components in a different order will create a different meaning:

uB​3rA​tE strength>human ub'​ira'​te human strength
Step ladder
1 2 3 4
noun adj.
noun adj.
noun adj.

The step ladder principle applies to every two adjactent root words, meaning that the feature can stack. If three root words are linked to one another, then not only will the first and second root word assume the role of noun-adjective with regard to one another, but so will the second and the third. This means that the role of the root word in the middle will be dual: dependent of the first root word (like an adjective), and dominant over the third root word (like a noun). The pattern repeats for any additional root word that is added onto the string. In theory, there is no limit to how long such a string may become. The following example uses 5 root words:

(man, male)
(action, active)
(harmony, harmonious)
(language, linguistic)
(vision, visual)

If we string them together, we get:

mA lO 1lIS eG eN
ma lo ælis eg en
man > active
action > harmonious
harmony > linguistical
language > visual

Or, more literally:

mA lO 1lIS eG eN
ma lo ælis eg en
man that performs act
act of harmony
harmony that regards language
language that regards vision

Consequentially, the word mA​lO​1lIS​eG​eN ma​lo'​ælis'​eg​en therefore means something along the lines of 'man involved in visual linguistic harmony', or simply:(male) poet-writer.

Note that even a group of root words strung into one word can still be regarded as belonging to any word category. For example, the word iOqA1rA ioqa'æra could mean:

  • poverty (noun);
  • poor (adjective);
  • poorly (adverb);
  • to be poor (verb).

The Ælis root words can be broadly categorized into two groups. Some root words are straightfoward stand-alone lexemes, meaning that they are like words you can find in a dictionary. Examples include mA ma (man, male), tW (color), or aS as (time). But there are other root words that have a somewhat grammatical component to them as well, each with their own individual properties. Learning what they are and how they work will be the next step in applying the word construction patters of Ælis.

Note: You may visit the chapter in the for the full paradigm. However, it is not suggested to do so now if you have just started learning.

lISqA lis'qa, or number concepts, are a peculiar feature of the Ælis language, possibly even a unique feature across languages worldwide. They are a set of ten angular symbols additional to the letters of the alphabet, grouped into two groups of five called the low range and high range. The lisqa all carry a reference to a number. It is important to understand from the get-go that the lisqa:

  • are proper root words;
  • do not have any meaning unless combined with other root words;
  • are not the same as cardinal numbers.

Rather than being numbers themselves, the lisqa appear in words where a reference to the numbers is somehow conceptually present. As there are plenty of chapters left to cover all the different uses, for now let's first have a look at what the symbols look like, how they are pronounced, and which numeric value they carry:

Low range
0 1 2 3 4
a æ e i o
0 1 2 3 4
High range
5 6 7 8 9
u̯a u̯æ u̯e u̯i u̯o
0 1 2 3 4

The arch below the letter "u" () in the high range lisqa means that the emphasis is not on the letter u, but on the adjacent vowel. I.e.: " is pronounced like the letter w in 'whisky'.

Fun fact: the shapes of the lisqa symbols are not quite arbitrary. They are small, angular versions of the proper letters of the alphabet:

Letter a w e i o
Lisqa 0 1 2 3 4
Rom. a æ e i o

The high range 5 6 7 8 9 is identical to the low range, but with a horizontal bar above and below each symbol. The bars are a reference to the letter u u.

The lisqa are written in between the other letters and form parts of a word, but they are smaller in size and are written at a higher baseline than the regular letters. They may look like diacritics to the untrained eye.


Having said that the numeric value is somehow conceptually present in the word, one of the most noteworthy examples of lisqa can be found in the very name of the language:1lIS ælis means something along the lines of 'one-ness', or of course unity.

The following chapters will shine a light on the various word types in which the lisqa make their appearance.

qA qa 'number, unit, countable'

All Ælis numbers use the fixed root word qA qa. For the numbers 0-4, prefix the corresponding lisqa of the low range to the root word qA qa. The numbers from 5 to 9 use the high range lisqa. You can see it similarly to the fact that we have two hands with five fingers each.

0qA aqa 0
1qA æqa 1
2qA eqa 2
3qA iqa 3
4qA oqa 4
5qA u̯aqa 5
6qA u̯æqa 6
7qA u̯eqa 7
8qA u̯iqa 8
9qA u̯oqa 9

For numbers 10 and up, the lisqa are combined like digits in our decimal system.

10qA æ'aqa 10
11qA æ'æqa 11
12qA æ'eqa 12
13qA æ'iqa 13
14qA æ'oqa 14
15qA æ'u̯aqa 15
16qA æ'u̯æqa 16
17qA æ'u̯eqa 17
18qA æ'u̯iqa 18
19qA æ'u̯oqa 19
20qA e'aqa 20
21qA e'æqa 21
22qA e'eqa 22
23qA e'iqa 23
24qA e'oqa 24
25qA e'u̯aqa 25
26qA e'u̯æqa 26
27qA e'u̯eqa 27
28qA e'u̯iqa 28
29qA e'u̯oqa 29
30qA i'aqa 30
31qA i'æqa 31
32qA i'eqa 32
33qA i'iqa 33
34qA i'oqa 34
35qA i'u̯aqa 35
36qA i'u̯æqa 36
37qA i'u̯eqa 37
38qA i'u̯iqa 38

The system continues regularly for numbers 100 and up.

100qA æ'a'aqa 100
101qA æ'a'æqa 101
102qA æ'a'eqa 102
110qA æ'æ'aqa 110
200qA e'a'aqa 200
375qA i'u̯e'u̯aqa 375
1000qA æ'a'a'aqa 1000

The stacking vowels become increasingly difficult to pronounce as numbers get higher. For big, round numbers, you may optionally resort to the complex counting system, where adjacent identical digits may be grouped. The digit that is grouped will then be preceded by a secondary case letter ido (D), preceded by the amount of times that the digit is repeated, further preceded by a primary case letter ido (d). For example:

Simple Complex
100qA 1d2D0qA ædedaqa one hundred "one, and two times zero" 100
1000qA 1d3D0qA ædidaqa one thousand "one, and three times zero" 1000
20000qA 2d4D0qA edodaqa twenty thousand "two, and four times zero" 20000
4000000qA 4d6D0qA odu̯ædaqa four million "four, and six times zero" 4000000
7000000000qA 7d9D0qA u̯edu̯odaqa seven billion "seven, and nine times zero" 7000000000

This means that any number with a repeating digit in it has two or more forms. The writing and pronunciation are not linked in any way, so it is perfectly viable to pronounce a simple number where a complex one is written down, and vice versa:

1000qA ædidaqa 1000
1d3D0qA æ'a'a'aqa 1000

It is even possible to use both approaches in one and the same number. This may combine efficiency with the intuition of certain speakers. Compare:

10d3D0qA æ'adidaqa "one, zero, and three times zero" 10,000

This example shows that you add, for example, the suffix didaqa to add 'thousand'.

Personal pronouns are formed by attaching the lisqa to one of three gender particles:

mA ma male
nI ni female
tE te mixed/undefined

The genders male, female and mixed/undefined are purely semantical, meaning that they do not govern the declension of nouns or the like. Note that the category of undefined pronouns is not the same as a neuter grammatical gender. In Ælis, the undefined pronouns are used only if a speaker:

  • is unaware of the gender;
  • doesn't wish to specify a gender;
  • refers to a group where both sexes are present.

The simple pronouns follow the 'traditional' six person paradigm: 3 persons singular, and 3 persons plural. The singular forms use the lisqa for 1, 2 and 3 of the low range:

1st p. singular
1mA æma I, me 1nI æni I, me 1tE æte I, me
2nd p. singular
2mA ema you 2nI eni you 2tE ete you
3rd p. singular
3mA ima he, him 3nI ini she, her 3tE ite he, him she, her

The plural forms use the lisqa of the high range:

1st p. plural
6mA u̯æma we, us 6nI u̯æni we, us 6tE u̯æte we, us
2nd p. plural
7mA u̯ema you 7nI u̯eni you 7tE u̯ete you
3rd p. plural
8mA u̯ima they, them 8nI u̯ini they, them 8tE u̯ite they, them

There is also a 4th person in Ælis, with the lisqa 4, which refers to a person or more people beyond eyesight:

4th p. singular
4mA oma other (man) 4nI oni other (woman) 4mA ote other (person)
4th p. plural
9mA u̯oma other (men) 9nI u̯oni other (women) 9mA u̯ote other (people)

The lisqa 0 can also be used, in which case the personal pronoun will refer to the generalizing 'one':

0th p. singular
0mA ama a man (in general) 0nI ani a woman (in general) 0mA ate a person (in general)
0th p. plural
5mA u̯ama men (in general) 5nI u̯ani women (in general) 5mA u̯ate people (in general)

The simple pronouns partially exist as a stepping stone for learners. Ælis will avoid them whenever a complex pronoun can be used. The term 'complex' is perhaps a bit misleading, as these pronouns do none other than combine several lisqa in one pronouns. This way, more precise pronouns may be created. For example:

1mA æma I, me♂
2mA ema you(sing.)
12mA æ'ema you(sing.) and me♂
2nI eni you(sing.)
3nI ini her
23nI e'ini you(sing.) and her♀

When the complex model is used to combine personal pronouns of both genders, it is obligatory to resort to the mixed gender:

1mA æma me♂
2nI eni you(sing.)
12tE æ'ete me and you

Weaving lisqa into complex pronoun system is limited only by the creativity of the speaker. Here are some other possibilities:

24nI e'oni "you and another woman"
03mA a'ima "he, just like all other men"
16tE æ'u̯æte "me and the rest of us"

Always pay attention that the lisqa are placed in strictly ascending order.

rA ra 'range, extent, tier'

lISrA or qualifiers are another word category that make smart use of the lisqa, the qualifiers themselves being a quite special and fundamental feature of the morphology. The lisra are a set of five particles that can suffix to certain root words (more specifically root words), expressing something along the lines of the range, extent, level, or perhaps degree of the root word they attach to. The lisra are formed by prefixing one of the five low range lisqa to the fixed root word rA ra. These five words create the following five 'degrees':

0rA ara 'none' 'nothing' 'not at all'
1rA æra 'little' 'not much' 'a bit'
2rA era 'somewhat' 'about half' 'intermediate'
3rA ira 'much' 'very' 'quite'
4rA ora 'all' 'total' 'complete'

The root words to which the lisra can connect can be seen as lying within a linear, continuous spectrum that ranges from one extreme to the other. The lisra themselves then highlight five points within that spectrum. This way, the system allows the creation of both hyperboles and antonyms with words that look and sound similar to one another.

Probably the best way to explain the lisra is to illustrate the principle with examples. If you look at how the translations are influenced by attaching different lisra to one and the same base root, you'll get a feel for the principle.

nA na quality, value(opinion-based)
nA0rA na'ara 'no quality' terrible
nA1rA na'æra 'little quality' bad
nA2rA na'era 'some quality' mediocre
nA3rA na'ira 'much quality' good
nA4rA na'ora 'total quality' perfect
uB ub power, energy, force
uB0rA ub'ara 'no power' powerless
uB1rA ub'æra 'little power' weak
uB2rA ub'era 'some power' moderate strength
uB3rA ub'ira 'much power' strong
uB4rA ub'ora 'total power' almighty
zU zu temperature
zU0rA zu'ara 'no temperature' freezing
zU1rA zu'æra 'little temperature' cold
zU2rA zu'era 'some temperature' lukewarm
zU3rA zu'ira 'much temperature' warm, hot
zU4rA zu'ora 'total temperature' (blistering) hot
dW brightness
dW0rA dæ'ara 'no brightness' pitch black
dW1rA dæ'æra 'little brightness' dark
dW2rA dæ'era 'some brightness' dim
dW3rA dæ'ira 'much brightness' bright
dW4rA dæ'ora 'total brightness' (blindingly) bright
vE ve value(measurable)
vE0rA ve'ara 'no value' worthless
vE1rA ve'æra 'little value' cheap, low quality
vE2rA ve'era 'some value' mediocre value
vE3rA ve'ira 'much value' valuable
vE4rA ve'ora 'total value' precious
dI di desire, will, volition
dI0rA di'ara 'no desire' prohibition
dI1rA di'æra 'little desire' discouragement
dI2rA di'era 'some desire' allowance, indifference
dI3rA di'ira 'much desire' desire, will, encouragement
dI4rA di'ora 'total desire' demand, obligation

The lisra are a powerful tool of Ælis morphology. They can connect to quite some roots in the thesaurus, creating a fivefold of new words for each one. For a full overview of root words to which the lisra can connect, consult the and filter for "".

dA da axis, (straight) line

The axes of space and time are Ælis' means to describe space and time with language. All of these words contain the fixed root word dA da. Each of the axes represents a dimension. can be used to highlight one of five points within each dimension.

Three-dimensional representation of space

The way in which Ælis describes locations in space is somewhat comparable to the X-Y-Z graphs commonly used in math. A spatial indication is built with four components:

  • the fixed root word aN an, which means 'space' or 'place', indicating that the word refers to space;
  • a lisqa to indicate to which dimension is referred;
  • the fixed root word dA da, which means 'axis' or 'dimension';
  • one of five lisra to indicate one of five points on the axis.

For example:

aN1dA4rA an'æda'ora
aN 1 dA 4rA
an æ da ora
'place' 1st dimension 'dimension' 5th point
"the 5th point in the 1st dimension of space"

The following chapters will look at the different spatial dimensions.

1st axis — horizontal

The first axis uses the lisqa for 1, and refers to the horizontal axis. Without any lisra attached, the word aN1dA an'æda means 'horizontal'. The first axis ranges from left to right.

aN1dA0rA an'æda'ara leftmost
aN1dA1rA an'æda'æra left
aN1dA2rA an'æda'era center
aN1dA3rA an'æda'ira right
aN1dA4rA an'æda'ora rightmost
2nd axis — vertical

The second axis uses the lisqa for 2, and refers to the vertical axis. Without any lisra attached, the word aN2dA an'eda means 'vertical'. The second axis ranges from bottom to top.

aN2dA0rA an'eda'ara bottom
aN2dA1rA an'eda'æra down, below
aN2dA2rA an'eda'era center
aN2dA3rA an'eda'ira on top, above
aN2dA4rA an'eda'ora top
3rd axis — depth

The third axis uses the lisqa for 3, and refers to the depth axis. Without any lisra attached, the word aN3dA an'ida means 'depth', or also 'path'. The third axis ranges from back to front.

aN3dA0rA an'ida'ara far back, at the back
aN3dA1rA an'ida'æra back, behind
aN3dA2rA an'ida'era center
aN3dA3rA an'ida'ira in front, ahead
aN3dA4rA an'ida'ora far front, at the front

To understand this axis, imagine standing on a road. Your own location is described as aN3dA2rA an'ida'era. That which is in front of you is described as aN3dA3rA an'ida'ira (close) or aN3dA4rA an'ida'ora (far); that which is behind you is aN3dA1rA an'ida'æra (close) or aN3dA0rA an'ida'ara (far).

4th axis — in-out

Even though the world we live in is three-dimensional, Ælis has a 4th axis. It ranges from in to out.

aN4dA0rA an'oda'ara inside, at the core
aN4dA1rA an'oda'æra inside
aN4dA2rA an'oda'era center
aN4dA3rA an'oda'ira out, outside
aN4dA4rA an'oda'ora far out

used to describe, for example, something against the wall or on a window on the inside of a house. used to describe, for example, something on the doorstep of a house, or something sitting in the window sill. used to describe, for example, something against the wall or on a window on the outside of a house.

0th axis — cardinal

Ælis also has an axis with the lisqa for 0, which is the cardinal axis. It describes the cardinal points.

aN0dA0rA an'ada'ara North
aN0dA1rA an'ada'æra East
aN0dA2rA an'ada'era center
aN0dA3rA an'ada'ira South
aN0dA4rA an'ada'ora West

describes 0° for both longitude and latitude.

The axis of time is considerably easier to understand than the axes of space, because there is only one axis. The axis of time uses the word aS as for 'time' rather than aN an for 'space', and also the first lisqa is absent, as there is no 'dimension' to choose from. The axis of time reaches from past to future:

aSdA0rA asda'ara far past, history
aSdA1rA asda'æra (recent) past
aSdA2rA asda'era present, now
aSdA3rA asda'ira (near) future
aSdA4rA asda'ora far future, eternity

In "complex" indications about space or time, lisqa may be combined in order to be more precise. For example:

aSdA2rA asda'era now
aSdA3rA asda'ira (near) future
aSdA23rA asda'e'ira immediate future
aN0dA0rA an'ada'ara North
aN0dA1rA an'ada'æra East
aN0dA01rA an'ada'a'æra North East
aN1dA3rA an'æda'ira right
aN2dA1rA an'eda'æra bottom
aN12dA31rA an'æ'eda'i'æra bottom-right

The fact that we have gone over the lisra now enables us to speak about pluralization in Ælis. In short: there is none. In the section , we spoke about how root words generally designate a centralized idea for which languages like English tend to have many words, and that according to context, they can be understood to be nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. The root words are like bricks that can be used for many purposes, and their exact purpose is defined by the context. Well, this idea also extends to the number of the root words.

In their value of 'noun', any root word is to be understood as being singular and plural at the same time.

This means that all Ælis root words can be seen as mass nouns. Examples of mass nouns, in English, are 'sugar', 'water', or 'furniture'. What this means for Ælis is that for example, the root word aN an does not only mean 'spatial' (adj.) or 'to locate' (verb), but that as a noun, it can also mean place and places; both space and spaces. The root word tE te can mean both 'person' and 'people'. The principle also applies to compound words:mAuE3rA ma'ue'ira, for example, can mean both 'father' and 'fathers'. In essence, this means that if you have any given root word X, you have to interpret it as "(a given amount of) X":

hA​mA​iR​aN​1tE ha​ma ir​an​'æte There is a man here. There are men here. A given amount of men is present here.

Whenever possible, Ælis will prefer to have context determine which number (i.e. singular or plural) a noun has, or in other words, omit a specification whenever possible. If deemed necessary, however, Ælis has two ways to explicit the number of a noun.

The precise method is the easiest and preferred. The precise method consists simply of prefixing a number to another root word. For example:

mA ma: man, male
0qAmA aqa'ma zero men
1qAmA æqa'ma one man
2qAmA eqa'ma two men
3qAmA iqa'ma three men
4qAmA oqa'ma four men
aN an: space, place
0qAaN aqa'an zero places
1qAaN æqa'an one place
2qAaN eqa'an two places
3qAaN iqa'an three places
4qAaN oqa'an four places
qOrEkmIK qoremi: cat, feline
0qAqOrEkmIK aqa'qoremi zero cats
1qAqOrEkmIK æqa'qoremi one cat
2qAqOrEkmIK eqa'qoremi two cats
3qAqOrEkmIK iqa'qoremi three cats
4qAqOrEkmIK oqa'qoremi four cats
aNoW0rA anoæ'ara: home, residence
0qAaNoW0rA aqa'anoæ'ara zero homes
1qAaNoW0rA æqa'anoæ'ara one home
2qAaNoW0rA eqa'anoæ'ara two homes
3qAaNoW0rA iqa'anoæ'ara three homes
4qAaNoW0rA oqa'anoæ'ara four homes

If the precise method cannot be used, Ælis will resort to the imprecise method. It consists of suffixing one of the five lisra to the fixed root word qA qa, which means 'amount' or 'number', and prefixing that to another word.

mA ma: man, male
qA0rAmA qa'ara'ma no men
qA1rAmA qa'æra'ma some man
qA2rAmA qa'era'ma several men
qA3rAmA qa'ira'ma many men
qA4rAmA qa'ora'ma all men
aN an: space, place
qA0rAaN qa'ara'an no places
qA1rAaN qa'æra'an some place
qA2rAaN qa'era'an several places
qA3rAaN qa'ira'an many places
qA4rAaN qa'ora'an all places
qOrEkmIK qoremi: cat, feline
qA0rAqOrEkmIK qa'ara'qoremi no cats
qA1rAqOrEkmIK qa'æra'qoremi some cat
qA2rAqOrEkmIK qa'era'qoremi several cats
qA3rAqOrEkmIK qa'ira'qoremi many cats
qA4rAqOrEkmIK qa'ora'qoremi all cats
aNoW0rA anoæ'ara: home, residence
qA0rAaNoW0rA qa'ara'anoæ'ara no homes
qA1rAaNoW0rA qa'æra'anoæ'ara some home
qA2rAaNoW0rA qa'era'anoæ'ara several homes
qA3rAaNoW0rA qa'ira'anoæ'ara many homes
qA4rAaNoW0rA qa'ora'anoæ'ara all homes

Now that we've dealt with the basics of word construction, it's time to shed a light on sentences. Ælis breaks away from the 'traditional' subject-verb-object oriented structure, and approaches syntax in a radically different way. Structure-wise, Ælis is an active-stative language, specifically of the fluid-S subtype. What this means is that the syntax focuses primarily (if not solely) on the semantical role of syntactical arguments rather than a grammatical function they have.

The Ælis syntax is inspired by the sender-message-receiver model of communication. Every sentence essentially describes a 'transfer' that revolves primarily around the following three participants:

  • Message: that which is tranferred;
  • Sender: the argument that transfers it;
  • Receiver: the argument to whom it is transferred.

The word that contains the value of 'message' is called the topic. It is a word that can describe an object, event, action, or situation, such as for example 'rain', 'accident', 'speech', or 'happiness'. The argument that carries the value of 'receiver' is called the patient. This argument is always passively or involuntarily involved in whichever the topic describes. It can be the receiver of the object, the (passive) subject which the event or action affects, or the argument to which the situation applies. The 'sender', finally, is called the agent. It is the argument that is actively or voluntarily involved in the interaction described by the topic. It is therefore either the argument that gives the object, initiates the event, performs the action, or causes / has caused the situation to become.

The fact that Ælis makes no distinction between word classes such as nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs, has tremendous implications for the syntax. As the verb is a core component in the grammar of most languages worldwide, the absence of it in Ælis means that notions of verb conjugation (including tenses), agreement, valency, or voice are equally formally absent from the language. This may initially create a feeling of 'handicap' for new learners. So how is it done?

Learning to speak Ælis will require a different way of thinking. The groundwork laid out by the syntax will most likely obligate you to allocate semantical units differently than what you're used to, i.e. group them in different semantical units than what is common in English. In order to start adopting the model, keep in mind that interactions do not revolve around subject, verb, and object, but rather:


  • message
  • essive
  • describes an object, action, situation, or event


  • receiver
  • passive
  • describes the receiver of an object, passive subject of an action, argument to which a situation applies, or argument that the event affects


  • sender
  • active
  • describes the giver/sender of an object, argument that performs an action, causer of the situation, or initiator of the event

Let's work with a simple example.

hare'maria ia'æni
name Maria I, me ♀
topic patient

If we want to say 'my name is Maria', then Ælis treats this as a transfer taking place. That which is 'transferred' is the 'name Maria', and the receiver of this name is 'me'. As the root word rE re can mean 'name' as a noun, but also 'to name/call' as a verb, Ælis doesn't actually care whether the topic in question describes an object, event, situation, or action. It is all the same. The sentence above can therefore be interpreted to mean all of the following:

  • My name is Maria.
  • I receive the name Maria.
  • I am named Maria.

Note that for the above sentence, it is irrelevant who 'sends' or 'gives' the name. There is no agent in the sentence, nor does the grammar require one. So look what happens if we decide to turn the patient into an agent:

hare'maria la'æni
name Maria I, me ♀
topic agent
"I call (the name of) Maria" "I call Maria's name"
"I call Maria"

In this sentence, that which is sent is still the 'name Maria', but the argument that performs the calling is 'me'. As all the info we desired to express is already contained in the sentence, adding a patient into the mix is not needed. But it is possible. See what happens if we use both an agent and a patient in this sentence. Imagine a parent saying proudly about their newborn daughter:

lA1mA hArEkmARIAK iA3nI
la'æma hare'maria ia'ini
I, me ♂ name Maria she, her ♀
agent topic patient
"I give her the name Maria" "I call her Maria"

So one of the primary challenges is breaking the information up in groups, and then assign the correct functions to them. A few other examples:

hA​aQ​3rA​aN​2dA iA​mA​ksEMK "Sam receives big height"
"Sam is tall"
ha'​aq'​ira'​an'​eda ia​ma​re'​sem
big height Sam ♂
topic patient
hA​30qA​qU​eO iA​mA​ksEMK "Sam receives 30 life years"
"Sam is 30 years old"
ha'​i'aqa'​qu'​eo ia​ma​re'​sem
30 years of existence Sam ♂
topic patient
hA​aN​oW​0rA​kuSAK iA​mA​ksEMK "Sam receives residence USA"
"Sam is from the USA"
ha'​an​oæ'​ara'​re'​usa ia​ma​re'​sem
residence USA Sam ♂
topic patient
hA​eG​1lIS iA​mA​ksEMK "Sam receives Ælis speech"
"Sam hears Ælis"
ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​ma​re'​sem
Ælis language Sam ♂
topic patient
lA​1mA hA​eG​1lIS "I send Ælis speech"
"Ælis speech is sent by me"
"I produce Ælis speech"
"I speak Ælis"
la'​æma ha'​eg'​ælis
I, me ♂ Ælis language
agent topic
lA​1mA hA​eG​1lIS iA​mA​ksEMK "I give Ælis speech to Sam"
"Sam receives Ælis speech from me"
"I speak Ælis to Sam"
"Sam hears me speak Ælis"
la'​æma ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​ma​re'​sem
I, me ♂ Ælis language Sam ♂
agent topic patient

Like the principle of a case system, Ælis marks the function of every word within a sentence. However, while most languages with a case system work with inflection/noun declension, Ælis marks the syntactical function of a word through prefixes called function markers. The prefixes are:

topic marker
patient marker
agent marker
modifier marker

the modifier will be discussed in the next chapter.

Within sentences, each word must be marked with a function marker. This has some interesting consequences:

One-word sentences
Simple words can be turned into one-word sentences just by adding a function marker to them. The function marker to choose is usually the topic marker. Compare:
dOE hA​dOE
doe ha​doe
fire There's a fire.
Something is burning.
qO​rE​kmIK hA​qO​rE​kmIK
qo​re​mi ha​qo​re​mi
cat There's a cat.
gOE​lI​aN​2dA​3rA hA​gOE​lI​aN​2dA​3rA
goe'​li'​an'​eda'​ira ha​goe'​li'​an'​eda'​ira
rain It is raining.
Free word order
Because each word is marked with a function marker, it is clear which role each word plays within the sentence regardless of word order.
Active voice = passive voice
Due to the formal absence of verbs, no conjugations or other complex grammatical constructions are required (or even possible, for that matter) to distinguish between the active and the passive voice. If a sentence contains a patient but no agent, it is a passive sentence (i.e. situation). If it contains an agent, but no patient, it is an active sentence (i.e. an action). If a sentence contains both, it can be regarded as being both active and passive at the same time.
Omission of any word
Any word may be omitted from any sentence without violating the grammar. In English, omitting the word 'you' from the sentence "I'm thinking about you" would create an ungrammatical utterance. In Ælis, one can at most make non-sensical utterances this way, but never non-grammatical ones. Even seemingly semantically 'poor' sentences can make sense within the proper context. Consider the example sentence iA​3nI​lA​1mA ia'​ini la​'æma, which would roughly translate to *"me to her". This grammatically correct sentence would make perfect sense if it were for example the answer to the question hA​eG​eR​1lIS​iA​nE​lA​nE ha'​eg​er'​ælis ia​ne la​ne: 'who speaks Ælis to whom?'. Well:

ia'​ini la​'æma
"I (do) to her".

Let's now have a look at the fourth and final syntactical element of Ælis, the one we haven't talked about much.

Modifier marker:

The modifier is the fourth and final possible component of an Ælis sentence. It is marked by the morpheme iR ir, and expresses a context in which the interaction takes place. Essentially, the modifier is an umbrella category for anything that falls outside the scope of the topic, agent, and patient functions. The modifier is in some ways comparable to an adverbial clause. It can express things such as time, location, manner, cause, consequence, and many others. This is why it is not unimportant which root word immediately follows the function marker. This root word will determine the scope of the modifier; identify its type.

The modifier adds a powerful tool to the syntax. The following chapters will have a look at the ways in which it can be used to one's advantage.

Modifier of time:

As Ælis lacks verb conjugations, the modifier of time is the key to the otherwise missing time tenses. In other words, a time tense is expressed simply by adding an extra word to the sentence. Because there are 5 points on the axis of time, Ælis can also be considered to have 5 points in time in which an action can take place:

  • aS​dA​0rA as​da'​ara the far past
  • aS​dA​1rA as​da'​æra the (recent) past
  • aS​dA​2rA as​da'​era the present
  • aS​dA​3rA as​da'​ira the (near) future
  • aS​dA​4rA as​da'​ora the far future

Have a look at the following example:

la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte
We like learning Ælis.
la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte ir​as​da​'ara
We liked learning Ælis once.
la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte ir​as​da​'æra
We liked learning Ælis.
la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte ir​as​da​'era
We like learning Ælis now.
la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte ir​as​da​'ira
We will like learning Ælis (soon).
la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte ir​as​da​'ora
We will like learning Ælis someday.

The modifier of time may just as well connect to other words than the he ones above. In the example below, notice how the semantics may determine the time frame without the grammar having to:

ha'​el​ea​na'​ora ia'​ini
She is filled with joy.
ha'​el​ea​na'​ora ia'​ini ir​as​eo​li'​em​ii​ni'​ue'​æra
She was filled with joy when her daughter was born.

As there is no verb to determine a tense, one can even add two modifiers of time and refer to two tenses at once:

la​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira ia​'u̯æte ir​as​da​'æra ir​as​da​'ira
We liked learning Ælis, and will also like it in the future.
Modifier of place:

The modifier of place expresses where the interaction takes place.

I am.
ha​'æte ir​an​re​'naladæ
I am in the Netherlands.
ha​'æte ir​an​'ida​'æra​'væ​'ete
I am behind you.
ha​'æte ir​an​at​'ara​'as​da​'ara​'ii​'æte
I am somewhere I've never been before.
Modifier of manner:

The modifier of manner expresses how things happen, and it is the formulation that is most closely related to the adverb. The modifier of manner will also principally reflect the topic rather than the sentence as a whole.

ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis
We learn Ælis.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​ub​'ira​'ei
We learn Ælis intensely.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​eg​er​at​'æqa​'do​'as​li​'u̯æte
We learn Ælis by speaking (it) every day.

A construction worth highlighting is the construction iRaMdI iramdi, which can make up for the otherwise missing imperative indications.

ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis
We learn Ælis.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​di​'ara
We may not learn Ælis.
We are not allowed to learn Ælis.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​di​'æra
We should not learn Ælis.
We are discouraged to learn Ælis.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​di​'era
We may learn Ælis.
We are allowed to learn Ælis.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​di​'ira
We should learn Ælis.
We are encouraged to learn Ælis.
ia​'u̯æte ha​'ii​'ei​'ira​'em​eg​'ælis ir​am​di​'ora
We have to learn Ælis.
We are obligated to learn Ælis.
Modifier of cause:

The modifier of cause expresses why the interaction occurs.

He does (it).
la​'ima ir​ar​el​ea​na​'ira​'li​'ini
He does (it) because he likes her.
la​'ima ha​goe
He (pours) water.
lA​3mA​hA​gOE iR​aR​dOE​iI​aN​oW​0rA
la​'ima ha​goe ir​ar​doe​'ii​'an​oæ​'ara
He (pours) water because the house is on fire.

Do not confuse the modifiers of cause and consequence with each other. Click here for more info.

Modifier of consequence:

The modifier of consequence, also called the modifier of effect, expresses what the outcome of the interaction is; what it entails; what happens as a consequence of it.

la​'ete ha​lo​ve​de​'em​ub​'ira
You work hard.
la​'ete ha​lo​ve​de​'em​ub​'ira ir​is​ii​'an​(re)​'deu
You work hard so (you could) go to Germany.
la​'ete ha​lo​ve​de​'em​ub​'ira ir​is​io​'an​oæ​'ara​'em​na​'ira
You work hard so (you could) buy a nice house.

It should be pointed out that this modifier is also the equivalent of "ifthen" constructions. Ælis interprets the previous sentences as having the same meaning as:

la​'ete ha​lo​ve​de​'em​ub​'ira ir​is​ii​'an​(re)​'deu
If you work hard, you can go to Germany.
la​'ete ha​lo​ve​de​'em​ub​'ira ir​is​io​'an​oæ​'ara​'em​na​'ira
If you work hard, you can buy a nice house.

Do not confuse the modifiers of cause and consequence with each other. Click here for more info.

Even though the modifiers of cause and consequence are clearly distinct, a word of caution is in place.

The use of the English words "cause" and "because of" can be highly misleading. According to the context, the translation from an English sentence into Ælis might require the use of one modifier or the other. If you would want to translate the sentence "I'm helping them because it makes me feel good", then the presence of the word 'because' will encourage learners to spontaneously pick the modifier of cause, iRaR irar. However, that would not be the correct choice. Compare:

la​'æte ha​'ii​na​'ira ia​u̯ite
by me, improvement is given to them I help them.
la​'æte ha​'ii​na​'ira ia​u̯ite ir​ar​el​ea​na​'ira​'ii​'æte
by me, improvement is given to them because good emotion occurs to me. I help them because I feel good.
la​'æte ha​'ii​na​'ira ia​u̯ite ir​is​el​ea​na​'ira​'ii​'æte
by me, improvement is given to them so that good emotion occurs to me. I help them therefore I feel good. Helping them makes me feel good. I help them because (it) makes (me) feel good.
Modifier of frequency:

The modifier of frequency, as its name suggests, expresses how often an event occurs. The root word aT at is qualifiable, meaning that it can annex a lisra for clarification:

I do (it).
la​'æte ir​at​'ara
I never do (it).
la​'æte ir​at​'æra
I sometimes do (it).
la​'æte ir​at​'era
I regularly do (it).
la​'æte ir​at​'ira
I do (it) often.
la​'æte ir​at​'ora
I always do (it).

The modifier of frequency can also be combined with other elements than lisra.

la​'æte ha​'ii​an​'ete
I come to you.
I visit you.
la​'æte ha​'ii​an​'ete ir​at​'u̯eqa​'do
I visit you with the frequency of 7 days.
I visit you every week.
la​'æte ha​'ii​an​'ete ir​at​'eqa​'væ​'u̯eqa​'do
I visit you with the frequency of 2 out of 7 days.
I visit you twice every week.

Although time-related words are the most apparent combinations for the modifier of frequency, other possibilities are conceivable:

There is a sign.
ha​hi​'eg​en ir​at​'idedaqa​'an​re​me
There is a sign every 300m.
la'​u̯æte ha'​eg'​ælis
We speak Ælis.
la'​u̯æte ha'​eg'​ælis ir​at​as​da'​ira'​em​ii'​æqa'​an
We speak Ælis whenever (we) meet.

There is not such a thing as a fixed amount of modifier types. Speakers and learners can, and are even encouraged to, go DIY on the modifier principle, and invent modifiers themselves. The modifier can be used with essentially any word. Apart from the ones in the previous sections, the modifier can mostly be interpreted as follows:

  • In the context of X;
  • In the scope of X;
  • With regards to X;
  • Taking X into account;
  • Keeping X in mind;
  • Given X;
  • etc.

For example:

ha​næ​'um​na​'ira ia​'ini
She is in good shape.
ha​næ​'um​na​'ira ia​'ini ir​qa​qu​'eo​'ii​'ini
She is in good shape given her age.
She is in good shape for her age.
ir​am​di​'ira ha​lo​'ei​'ira la​'u̯æte
We should act with caution.
ir​am​di​'ira ha​lo​'ei​'ira la​'u̯æte ir​næ​'iu
Given the (aforementioned) circumstances, we should act with caution.
Closing bracket:

Opening bracket:

The sentence bracket is a pair of root words, consisting of the 'opening bracket', lW ; and the 'closing bracket', iW .

3 + 4 * 5 = 3 + 20 = 23 (3 + 4) * 5 = 7 * 5 = 35

Quite comparable to brackets used in math, the sentence bracket will wrap around a phrase and turn it into one unit.

What is unique about the sentence bracket is that it may attach to any other root word, and will be dominant over all the root words that are placed between the opening and closing brackets. This includes the function markers, who are usually never subordinate to anything. The purpose of this is that it enables the creation of subordinate sentences. For example:

except the separator particle tA ta.

iA​3nI​hA​iI​eL​eA​nA​3rA ia'​ini ha'​ii'​el​ea​na'​ira She receives improving feelings She brightenes up.
lA​1mA​hA​eG la'​æma ha'​eg I send speech I speak.
add subclause as agent
iA​3nI​hA​iI​eL​eA​nA​3rA​lAlWlA​1mA​hA​eGiW ia'​ini ha'​ii'​el​ea​na'​ira la la'​æma ha'​eg She receives improving feelings by (I speak) (that which) I say brightens her up.
iA​3nI​hA​iI​eL​eA​nA​3rA​iR​aS​dA​1rA ia'​ini ha'​ii'​el​ea​na'​ira ir​as​da'​æra She receives improving feelingsin the past She brightened up.
lA​1mA​hA​eG​1lIS​lI la'​æma ha'​eg'​ælis'​li I send initial Ælis speech I start to speak Ælis.
add subclause to existing modifier 'the past'
iA​3nI​hA​iI​eL​eA​nA​3rA​iR​aS​dA​1rA​lWlA​1mA​hA​eG​1lIS​lIiW ia'​ini ha'​ii'​el​ea​na'​ira ir​as​da'​æra la'​æma ha'​eg'​ælis'​li She receives improving feelings in the past (I start to speak Ælis) She brightened up when I started to speak Ælis.

Question marker:

As with many things, asking questions in Ælis is also very different from English (and probably most languages world-wide). Ælis does not require (or even have) any special punctuation such as a question mark to place at the end of a sentence, nor is the intonation influenced in any way. Speakers are allowed to change the intonation of the sentence to match that of their native language and/or their intuition, but there is no obligation for it.

A word we will need is the question marker nE ne. It is key to understand that it does not connect to the sentence as a whole, but to individual words instead. This turns asking questions into an aspect of morphology rather than syntax.

By attaching a question marker to a word, a speaker will urge the conversation partner to be more specific about that word. One can therefore interpret nE ne to mean "which?".

Let's have a look at some useful particles to combine the question marker to.

which place where?
time aS​nE
which time when?
manner aM​nE
which manner how?
which reason why?
which consequence so?
and then?
what's next?
frequency aT​nE
which frequency how often?
which accuracy how true?

Speakers are encouraged to get creative by puzzling with more than one root word:

length + space distance aQ​aN​nE
which distance how far?
length + time duration aQ​aS​nE
which duration for how long?
place + origin departure aN​lI​nE
which departure wherefrom?
place + target goal,
which goal whereto?
time + origin start time aS​lI​nE
which start time from when?
starting when?
time + target end time aS​iI​nE
which end time until when?

The creativity does not end there, as the question marker can connect to virtually any other root word.

Which color?
Which temperature?
How valuable?
How dark/bright?
How funny/serious?
Which man?
Which woman?
Which animal?


The particle can connect to all root words except itself, the exclamation marker sA sa, or any of the free markers.

Due to the way in which the question marker works, there isn't really a difference between creating a question word and a question (sentence). The idea is to focus the question to one specific word of the sentence, i.e. turn one of the words into a question word. For starters, the question marker can be attached directly to a function marker:

hAnE hane what is the message?
iAnE iane what is the receiver?
lAnE lane what is the sender?
iRnE irne what is the context?

For example:

hA​nE​iA​2nI​lA​1mA ha​ne​ ia'​eni la'​æma What am I doing to you?

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​nE​lA​1mA ha'​eg'​ælis​ ia​ne la'​æma To whom do I speak Ælis?

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​nE ha'​eg'​ælis​ ia'​eni la​ne Who speaks Ælis to you?

A very useful trick is to use one of the question words from the previous section as a modifier:

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma I speak Ælis to you.
hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aS​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​as​ne When do I speak Ælis to you?
hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aN​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​an​ne Where do I speak Ælis to you?
hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aM​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​am​ne How do I speak Ælis to you?
hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aR​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​ar​ne Why do I speak Ælis to you? For which reason?
hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​iS​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​is​ne Why do I speak Ælis to you? To which purpose?

As opposed to questions with question words in them, which basically urge a conversation partner to be more specific about an utterance, a yes/no question requests a conversation partner to simply confirm or refute a given statement. So they are requests for confirmation, and not specification. But the latter is the only value that the question marker has: it will always urge a conversation partner to describe a certain argument with more detail.

So requesting a conversation partner to confirm a given statement requires a different approach. To form a yes/no question, one can add an extra word to the sentence. This word is the modifier iRaDnE iradne, which can be understood to mean: 'how true is it that…?'; 'how accurate is it that…?'.

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma I speak Ælis to you.
hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aD​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​ad​ne How true is it that I speak Ælis to you? (With) which accuracy I speak Ælis to you?

Since aD ad is a qualifiable root word, the answer will likely be one of the following:

iR​aD​0rA ir​ad​'ara no truth not at all
on the contrary
iR​aD​1rA ir​ad​'æra little truth no
not quite
iR​aD​2rA ir​ad​'era some truth true to some extent
iR​aD​3rA ir​ad​'ira much truth yes
iR​aD​4rA ir​ad​'ora full truth exactly

It ought to be pointed out that the Ælis 'style guide' will always try to avoid this approach. Even with a request for confirmation rather than specification, speakers are encouraged to always try and integrate the construction of aDnE adne into one of the words of the sentence, thus turning those specific words into the focus of the question.

In such formulations, the root words aD ad and nE ne will split up, and span the root words that the speaker wishes to place within the question's focus. It is possible to express tons of nuances by merely positioning the root words differently.

hA​aD​eG​1lIS​nE​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA ha'​ad​eg'​ælis'​ne ia'​eni la'​æma ir​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa I will speak Ælis to you tomorrow? (or will I be doing something else?)

aD​eG​1lIS​nE ad​eg'​ælis'​ne: which accuracy of Ælis language?

hA​eG​aD​1lIS​nE​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA ha'​eg​ad'​ælis'​ne ia'​eni la'​æma ir​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa I will speak Ælis to you tomorrow? (or will I be speaking something else?)

aD​1lIS​nE ad'​​ælis'​ne: which accuracy of Ælis?

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​aD2nI​nE​lA​1mA​iR​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA ha'​eg'​ælis ia'ad'​eni'ne la'​æma ir​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa Will I speak Ælis to you tomorrow? (or will I be speaking it to someone else?)

aD​2nI​nE ad'​eni'​ne: which accuracy of you?

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​aD​1mA​nE​iR​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'ad'​æma'​ne ir​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa Will I speak Ælis to you tomorrow? (or will someone else?)

aD​1mA​nE ad'​æma'​ne: which accuracy of me?

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aD​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​ad​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa'​ne Will I speak Ælis to you tomorrow? (or is the context somehow different?)

aD​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA​nE ad​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa'​ne: which accuracy of 1 day in the future?

hA​eG​1lIS​iA​2nI​lA​1mA​iR​aS​dA​3rA​dO​aD​1qA​nE ha'​eg'​ælis ia'​eni la'​æma ir​as​da'​ira'​do'​ad'​æqa'​ne Will I speak Ælis to you tomorrow? (or how many days from now will it be?)

aD​1qA​nE ad​æqa'​ne: which accuracy of 1?

The number of words in a response tends to equal the number of question markers nE ne in the preceding question.

It is not necessarily wrong to repeat all the words, but it is considered redundant and perhaps even a bit annoying.

lA​nE​hA​eG​1lIS​iA​nE​iR​aS​dA​3rA​dO​1qA la​ne ha'​eg'​ælis ia​ne ir​as​da'​ira'​do'​æqa Who will speak Ælis to whom tomorrow?

lA​1mAiA​2nI la'​æma ia'​eni I (will speak Ælis) to you tomorrow.

Exclamation marker:

Exclamations are approached in very similar fashion as questions. There is no distinct punctuation mark, but a separate root word instead. Although of remarkably less importance, the position of the exclamation marker may also be played with in order to place slight emphasis on one specific words of the sentence.

lA​eN​7tE​iA​1mA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA la'​en'​u̯ete la'​æma ha'​el​ea​na'​ira I am glad to see you all.

lA​eN​sA​7tE​iA​1mA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA la'​en​sa'​u̯ete la'​æma ha'​el​ea​na'​ira I am glad to see you all! (We've spoken so often, now we finally get to meet)

lA​eN​7tE​sA​iA​1mA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA la'​en'​u̯ete'​sa la'​æma ha'​el​ea​na'​ira I am glad to see you all! (I expected fewer people to show up)

lA​eN​7tE​iA​1mA​sA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA la'​en'​u̯ete la'​æma'​sa ha'​el​ea​na'​ira I am glad to see you all! (perhaps other people weren't)

lA​eN​7tE​iA​1mA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA​sA la'​en'​u̯ete la'​æma ha'​el​ea​na'​ira'​sa I am glad to see you all! (or did you think I wasn't looking forward to it?)

While the previous chapters dealt with topics of syntax, we now find ourselves back the word level again. Ælis has a tendency to create massive compound words, potentially with the length and lexical richness of entire sentences. In exchange, the amount of words in a sentence is often very low. Long and complex sentences can consist of only two words or sometimes just one, each of them marked with the corresponding function marker. Creating such long compound words is done by means of the partition system.

A partition is any lexeme (or combination thereof) that the speaker wishes to identify as one lexical unit. While a partition usually consists of more than one root word already, partitions themselves can be combined into a bigger word.

See , particularly classes 1, 2, and 3.

A partition marker can be one of six root words that is placed in between two partitions. A partition marker delineates (i.e. it identifies the both the preceding string of root words and the following string of root words as 'a partition'); and secondly, it identifies the relation that the two partitions have to one another. The partition markers break the links implied by , nullifying the effects of noun-adjectival or verb-adverbial relation that would exist between the two root words that the partition marker is placed between. Better said: the partition markers project the step ladder principle onto the full partitions instead of individual root words.

With the partition system, the structure of a compound word in Ælis will look a little like this:

partition 1 partition 2 partition 3
noun adj. partition
noun adj. noun adj. partition
noun adj. noun adj. noun adj.
noun adj. noun adj.
noun adj.

The following chapters elaborate on the six partition markers that exist.

Characteristic marker:

The characteristic marker is the most straight-forward of the partition markers. If it is placed in between two words, it will identify these words are being either noun-adjective or verb-adverb. In other words, the word behind the characteristic marker expresses a property of the first word. Examples:

qO​rE​kuAK qo​re​'ua dog, canine + tW​dW​0rA tæ​dæ'​ara black qO​rE​kuAK​eM​tW​dW​0rA qo​re'​ua'​em​tæ​dæ'​ara black dog
dOE​lI​aN​2dA​3rA doe'​li'​an'​eda'​ira rain + uB​3rA ub'​ira power, force dOE​lI​aN​2dA​3rA​eM​uB​3rA doe'​li'​an'​eda'​ira'​em​ub'​ira powerful rain heavy rain
nI​uE​3rA ni'​ue'​ira mother + nA​3rA na'​ira good nI​uE​3rA​eM​nA​3rA ni'​ue'​ira'​em​na'​ira good mother

The characteristic marker does the same thing to partitions as the step ladder principle does to single root words. This means that the order of the partitions is something to take into account. Compare:

nI​aQ​1rA​aS ni'​aq'​æra'​as girl + eL​eA​nA​3rA​eN el​ea​na'​ira'​en beauty, beautiful nI​aQ​1rA​aS​eM​eL​eA​nA​3rA​eN ni'​aq'​æra'​as​em​el​ea​na'​ira'​en beautiful girl
eL​eA​nA​3rA​eN el​ea​na'​ira'​en beauty, beautiful + nI​aQ​1rA​aS ni'​aq'​æra'​as girl eL​eA​nA​3rA​eN​eM​nI​aQ​1rA​aS el​ea​na'​ira'​en​em​ni'​aq'​æra'​as girl's beauty


The referent marker is a bit more abstract than the characteristic marker. It creates a kind of framework. The framework is limiting and conditional in nature. This means that the referent particle can be understood to mean "(when) compared to".

For example:

left (when) compared to you to your left, on your lefthand side
five (when) compared to one hundred 5/1005%
future (when) compared to death after death, afterlife

The following sections will go more into detail.

In the section about the axes of time and space, a lot of words are presented that can be used to describe locations and points in time. The referent marker can help express which such indications are relative to, de facto turning them into prepositions.

aN​1dA​3rA an'​æda'​ira right, righthand side + 3nI ini she, her aN​1dA​3rA​vW​3nI an'​æda'​ira'​'​ini righthand side compared to her to her right, right of her
aN​0dA​0rA an'​ada'​ara North + knIU​iOUQK re'​niu iooq New York aN​0dA​0rA​vW​knIU​iOUQK an'​ada'​ara'​​re'​niu iooq North compared to New York (to the) North of New York
aS​dA​1rA as​da'​æra past, prior + eO​lI​eM​iI​1mA eo​li'​em​ii'​æma the beginning of my life, my birth aS​dA​1rAvW​eO​lI​eM​iI​1mA as​da'​æra​'​eo​li'​em​ii'​æma the past compared to my birth before I was born

The referent can be used to express fractions.

1 out of 2
3 out of 10
65 out of 100

By extension, the referent can also be used to highlight parts of a group in general. Compare:

four cats
four of the cats
a lot of water
most of the water
all people
all of the people
(all members of a group)

In English, comparative structures are formed within either a predicative phrase or an adverbial one. An example of a predicative comparative is 'I am taller than you'. An example of an adverbial comparative is 'I run faster than you'. But Ælis uses a different syntactical structure for utterances like these: objects are compared directly to one another (i.e.: within the same phrase) in what is an otherwise normal, declarative sentence:

ia'​æma ha'​aq'​ira'​an'​eda
I am tall.
ia'​æma'​'​ema ha'​aq'​ira'​an'​eda
I compared to you am tall.
la'​æma ha'​an​ii​væ'​aq'​æra'​as
I run fast.
la'​æma'​'​ema ha'​an​ii​væ'​aq'​æra'​as
I compared to you run fast.

There is no distinct superlative. To create a superlative, the comparison is simply made to an absolute argument.

ia'​æma'​'​qa'​ora'​te ha'​aq'​ira'​an'​eda
I compared to everyone am tall.
la'​æma'​'​qa'​ora'​te ha'​an​ii​væ'​aq'​æra'​as
I compared to everyone run fast.

Without an argument to compare to, the referent marker will simply translate to 'relative(ly)', 'quite', or the adverb 'pretty':

ia'​æma'​ ha'​aq'​ira'​an'​eda
I am relatively tall.
I am quite tall.
I am pretty tall.
la'​æma'​ ha'​an​ii​væ'​aq'​æra'​as
I run relatively fast.
I run quite fast.
I am pretty fast.

The activity marker is used to describe actions. If it is placed in between two words, then it will identify the first as the sender, executor, maker, or doer of the second. The activity marker plays a similar role as the agent marker does, but then for partitions instead of entire words.

tE te person, human + eG​eN eg​en writing, script, reading tE​lO​eG​eN te​lo'​eg​en person (who does) writing writer
tE te person, human + iI​eI​3rA ii'​ei'​ira teaching, cognitive improvement tE​lO​iI​eI​3rA te​lo'​ii'​ei'​ira person (who does) teaching teacher
hI hi thing, object + qA qa number, amount,
numeric, to count
hI​lO​qA hi​lo​qa thing (that does) numbers calculator, computer
nI ni woman, female + dI​4rA di'​ora demand, obligation nI​lO​dI​4rA ni​lo​di'​ora woman (who executes) obligation leader, boss ♀
qO qo animal + eO​iI eo'​ii end of life, death qO​lO​eO​iI qo​lo'​eo'​ii animal (that makes) death predator

The passivity marker expresses passive or involuntary involvement. If it is placed between two words, then the first word will be identified as either receiving, undergoing, or subjected to the second.

tE te person, human + eG​eN eg​en writing, script, reading tE​iO​eG​eN te'​io'​eg​en person (that receives) writing reader, addressee
tE te person, human + iI​eI​3rA ii'​ei'​ira teaching, cognitive improvement tE​iO​iI​eI​3rA te'​io'​ii'​ei'​ira person (who undergoes) teaching student, apprentice
hI hi thing, object + dOE doe fire, fiery, to burn hI​iO​dOE hi'​io​doe thing (that undergoes) fire a burning object
aN an place, space + qA​3rA​tE qa'​ira'​te many people aN​iO​qA​3rA​tE an​io​qa'​ira​'te place (subject to) many people crowded place

The origin marker can be used to indicate the source of something. If it is placed between two words, then it will express that the first word is sent by the second, carried out by or originating from it.

eG​eR eg​er auditory language, speech + 1mA æma I, me ♂ eG​eR​lI​1mA eg​er​li'​æma speech (sent by) me my words, my speech,
my message, that which I say
gOE goe water, liquid + aN​2dA​4rA an'​eda'​ora high above, high up gOE​lI​aN​2dA​4rA goe'​li'​an'​eda'​ora water (originating from) high up rain

The target marker can be used to indicate finality or purpose. If placed between two partitions, it identifies the second as the receiver or owner of the first. It can also express that the second partition is affected by the first. In a broader sense, the target marker can even be used to express to whom or what the first partition 'corresponds', allowing it to express possession as well.

qO​rE​kmIK qo​re​mi cat, feline + 1nI æni I, me ♀ qO​rE​kmIK​iI​1ni qo​re​mi'​ii'​æni cat (corresponding to) me my cat
dOE doe fire + aN​oW​0rA an​oæ'​ara home, residence,
dOE​iI​aN​oW​0rA doe'​ii'​an​oæ'ara fire (which affects) residence the fire that burns the residence
eG​eN eg​en writing, script, reading + 1mA æma I, me ♂ eG​eN​iI​1mA eg​en​ii'​æma writing (received by) me the letter/message I receive

In summary, the partition markers do the following:

vWacomparative reference frameof
lOloanactionperformed by
iOioanactionhappening to
lIlitheagent or senderof
iIiitheintended recipient or possessorof

There is no theoretical limit to the amount of partitions that can be combined into one long and rich compound word. Speakers are challenged and encouraged to explore the limits.

partition 1 partition 2 partition 3
noun adj. partition
noun adj. noun adj. partition
noun adj. noun adj. noun adj.
noun adj. noun adj.
noun adj.

Some examples:

nI​ksEMK​lO​eG​eN​iI​1mA ni​re​'sem'​lo'​eg​en​ii'​æma girl named Sam (who does) writing (received by) me ♂ Sam, who writes to me

aQ​3rA​aS​eO​iI​qO​rE​kuAK​iI​mA​kdZZONK aq'​ira'​as​eo'​ii'​qo​re'​ua'​ii'​ma​re'​dzzon high age (corresponds to) dog (corresponds to) man named John John's dog's old age

mA​iO​eL​eA​nA​1rA​lI​qA​3rA​eR​lI​1mA ma'​io'​el​ea​na'​æra'​li​qa'​ira'​er​li'​æma man (with attribute) unhappy (originates from) much noise (originates from) me ♂ the man, who's annoyed by the noise I make

qO​rE​kmIK​eM​aN​2dA​3rA​vW​aN​oW​0rA​eM​tW​dW​4rA qo​re​mi'​em​an'​eda'​ira'​'​an'​oæ'​ara'​em​tæ​dæ'ora cat (with attribute) top (compared to) house (with attribute) white the cat on top of the white house

2nI​lO​eG​eR​eM​bI​3rA​vW​aS​dA​1rA​dO​1qA eni'​lo'​eg​er​em​bi'​ira'​'​as​da'​æra'​do'​æqa you ♀ (who does) speech (with attribute) funny (compared to) yesterday you, who says something funnier than yesterday

tA ta

The separator is a root word that does just what it says: it separates different parts of speech from one another. It has applications on both the word and sentence level. The following chapters will deal with both levels.

What the word level is concerned, the separator is an important addition to the partition system. First, consider the following compound word:

nI​aQ​1rA​aS​lO​eG​eR​1lIS​eM​eL​eA​nA​3rA​eN ni'​aq'​æra'​as​lo'​eg​er'​ælis'​em​el​ea​na'​ira'​en young woman who does Ælis speech with attribute visually pleasing

This is a word with two partition markers, separating three partitions: the young woman, the Ælis speech, and the (visual) beauty. Now, due to the workings of , which links a root word or a partition to the one immediately preceding it, in this case, the beauty is linked to the Ælis language. The word above means that firstly, the woman speaks Ælis, and secondly, that Ælis looks nice. But what if we want to say that the woman who speaks Ælis is beautiful, i.e.: what if we want to link two partitions to the first instead of to each other?

This is where the separator comes in. By strategically placing the separator particle tA ta before the last partition, this partition will refer not to the one that immediately precedes it, but rather to the same one as the previous partition does. In other words, the separator marker functions as a kind of 'reset' button in terms of morphological hierarchy among the partitions. Therefore, if we want to say that the woman speaks Ælis and is beautiful:

nI​aQ​1rA​aS​lO​eG​eR​1lIS​tAeM​eL​eA​nA​3rA​eN ni'​aq'​æra'​as​lo'​eg​er'​ælis'​ta'​em​el​ea​na'​ira'​en young woman who does Ælis speech and with attribute visually pleasing beautiful Ælis speaker

On the sentence level, the role of the separator is easier to explain: it detemines where one sentence ends, and a new one begins. In English, this may translate to two separate sentences, or to two coordinated clauses:

lA​3nI​hA​iI​aN​2dA​1rA la'​ini ha'​ii'​an'​eda'​æra She lies down
lA​1mA​hA​eG​lI la'​æma ha'​eg​li I begin to speak
lA​3nI​hA​iI​aN​2dA​1rA​tA​lA​1mA​hA​eG​lI la'​ini ha'​ii'​an'​eda'​æra ta la'​æma ha'​eg​li She lies down. I begin to speak. She lies down and I begin to speak.

In English, given names like 'John' or 'Mary' are written with capital letters. This way, they are marked as given names. Special or uncommon words, or sometimes borrowed words with which a writer assumes a reader might not be familiar, can be italicized or enclosed in 'apostrophes' in order to highlight them within a sentence. Ælis has its proper way to achieve these goals.

k K

Name symbols of Ælis.

The symbols on the right are called 're' symbols, or 'name symbols'. These symbols wrap around certain words, i.e. the 'opening re' before and the 'closing re' after, in order to mark them as non-standard Ælis words. By doing so, the enclosed word will be stripped of any lexical meaning it might have, leaving only the phonetic aspect.

For example, aN an is a root word that means 'place' or 'space'. But if enclosed in re symbols, then kaNK becomes the Ælis transcription of the given name Anne. This way, we can differentiate between the following sentences, both of which read ia'​æma ha'​el​ea​na'​ira la'​an:

iA​1mA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA​lA​aN I like (that) place.
iA​1mA​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA​lA​kaNK I like Anne.

In spoken discourse, the presence of the re symbols may be explicited in one of two ways:

  1. by inserting a brief pause before and after the name;
  2. by literally putting re in front of the name:kaNK re'an.

The principal writing rule remains unaffected: the first letter is written in the primary case, all the other letters are written in the secondary case. Any given name is considered to be one, inseparable word. Therefore, we get, for example:

'Himalaya' himalaia khIMALAIAK
'Esperanto' esperanto keSPERANTOK

In a name that consists of more than one word, the amount of words is maintained. This means: one primary case letter is to be used at the beginning of each one:

'New York' nu iouq knU​iOUQK
'Michelle Obama' missel obama kmISSEL​oBAMAK
'Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof' ludviq uazarz zamenhof klUDVIQ​uAZARZ​zAMENHOFK

Ælis does not have the means to write all of the world's sounds. This entails that given names, more often than not, need to be transcribed. For example:

'Himalaya' himalaia khIMALAIAK
'Jim' dzzim kdZZIMK

If there is no equivalent sound at all, then the closest equivalent needs to be chosen. Note that the transcription may differ a lot from the original spelling. It is also subject to the writer's interpretation which the nearest equivalent is.

'Smith ksMIFK smif
'Theresa ktIUISAK tiuisa

When transcribing names to Ælis, it is important to keep in mind that the pronunciation is the defining factor, and not the original spelling. This means that you must depart from the way it is pronounced by a native speaker and then potentially find the closest equivalents for any sounds that Ælis does not naturally have. Consider the following:

MichaelEnglish pronunciation mɑɪkəl mæql kmWQLK
MichaelGerman pronunciation mixael mihael kmIHAELK

This example shows that even though we are dealing with one and the same name, it still renders to notably different transcriptions in Ælis.

With all the names that exist in the world, it is often hard for speakers to identify the gender of a foreign name they might be confronted with. This is especially difficult because quite some names are unisex. For example, the name 'Andrea' is considered to be a female given name in most cultures/languages that have it present, however, it is a male given name in Italy. To counteract this type of ambiguity, it is very common, practically even standard, to prefix a gender particle to a name in Ælis. The gender particles are mA ma for 'male', and nI ni for 'female'. As such:

mAkaNDREAK ma(re')andrea (a man named) Andrea
nIkaNDREAK ni(re')andrea (a woman named) Andrea

Reducing ambiguity is not the only purpose of the gender assignation. It is also a form of politeness. It is even more common (and polite) to merge a name and a personal pronoun:

iA​1mA​hA​eN​2mAktOMK ia'​æma ha'​en'​ema'​(re)tom I see (you, Tom).

iA​1mA​hA​eN​3mAktOMK ia'​æma ha'​en'​ima'​(re)tom I see (him, Tom).

When it comes to sentence intonation and syllable stress in Ælis, there's one easy thing we can get out of the way right from the start:

There are no rules for intonation in Ælis.

This means that sentences including questions and exclamations may be pronounced in a monotone fashion, or may follow the intuition of your own native language. This makes Ælis a bit more accessible to learners from any native background, as intonation patterns in our native language are usually so hard-wired into our brains that we tend to project them onto a new language we learn without even realizing it. This may often lead to confusion and even ambiguity (for example: many languages distinguish a declarative utterance from an inquiring one just by intonation). In Ælis, this is not so. The lack of intonation rules also means that Ælis may be spoken in a rich variety of 'flavors', as each speaker may bring their native intonation rules to the table.

That being said, however, there are a other rules that need to be taken into consideration. These rules mainly regard syllable stress and systems of allomorphy (i.e.: pronunciation of a syllable that may vary according to the syllables that surround it). The following sections will elaborate.

In two-letter root words that consist of one consonant and one vowel, it is evident that the syllable stress is claimed by the vowel. But in root words that consist of two vowels, even though these are also considered to be monosyllabic, one of the two vowels will still have to be considered to be the nucleus of the syllable. So which of the vowels is it: the first, or the second?

Well, in the majority of cases, the nucleus may be chosen by the speaker. In plain English, this means that 2-vowel syllables may be pronounced with the emphasis on either the first or the second vowel.

eA ea nucleus-coda
eA ea onset-nucleus
oW oæ nucleus-coda
oW oæ onset-nucleus

However, there are 7 exceptions to this freedom: 7 root words where the nucleus is predetermined.

Nucleus = last vowel syllable: onset + nucleus

iI ii 'yee'
uU uu 'woo'
iI ii 'eeye'
uU uu 'oow'

Nucleus = first vowel syllable: nucleus + coda

uA ua 'OO-wah'
uW uæ 'OO-why'
uE ue 'OO-hey'
uI ui 'Louie'
uO uo 'OO-wow'
uA ua 'wah'
uW uæ 'why'
uE ue 'way'
uI ui 'wee'
uO uo 'wow'

Three letter root words in Ælis always have the structure "onset + nucleus + coda". In practice, this means that the weight of the syllable is always carried by the middle letter. For a root word like lIS lis, this is evident, as there is only one vowel in the syllable. But as three-letter root words may also have the structure CVV, the rule is relevant. Therefore:

dOE doe onset-nucleus-coda
dOE doe onset-onset-nucleus
gEO geo onset-nucleus-coda
gEO geo onset-onset-nucleus

Allomorphy is a mechanism where morphemes may come in different slight variations of pronunciation without changing meaning. This process is usually triggered by the adjacent letters in surrounding syllables. An example of allomorphy in English is the plural marker -s, which is pronounced as s in 'cats' (khæts), but as z in 'dogs' (dɑgz).

In Ælis, there is only one situation where an allomorphy pattern applies: whenever the last letter of one root word is the same as the first of the second root word. In these cases, an allomorphy pattern comes into effect in order to ensure that both letters are audible. In order of preference:

through elongation/​gemination. An example of elongation in English is the word 'unnamed', where the n is pronounced slightly longer than in 'unaimed'. Examples in Ælis:
aMmA amma aa
iRrW irræ iaɛ̯
by turning them into an ejective.
aTtA atta aa
aQqO aqqo aɒ
by separating them with a schwa ə, open-mid central rounded vowel ɞ, or another short and barely pronounced vowel sound.
aMmA amma aməma -or- amɞma
aTtE atte atəte -or- atɞte
iRrW irræ əɾaɛ̯ -or- ɞɾaɛ̯
by separating them with a glottal stop ʔ or simply a brief pause inbetween.
aMmA amma amʔma -or- am.ma
aTte atte atʔte -or- at.te
iRrW irræ ʔɾaɛ̯ -or- .ɾaɛ̯
nI3qA ni'iqa niʔika -or- ni.ika

May only be used with non-plosive consonants (m, n, l, r, h, s, z, f, and v). May only be used with plosive consonants (q, g, t, d, p, and b). May only be used with consonants (not vowels). May be used with all letters (including vowels).

TIP: If you prefer to have these rules explained with pronunciation examples, have a look at video tutorial No.21 (starting at around 7:50 into the video).

Lisqa always draw syllable stress, overshadowing both the preceding and following syllable's nuclei. For example, in the word hAnWnA4rA hanæna'ora, the primary and secondary stress may fall anywhere except on na nor ra.

hA​nW​nA​4rA ha​næ​na'​ora
hA​nW​nA​4rA ha​næ​na'​ora
hA​nW​nA​4rA ha​​na'​ora
hA​nW​nA4rA ha​næ​na'​ora
hA​nW​nA​4rA ha​næ​na'​ora

If 2 or more lisqa become adjacent, then the stress will fall on the latter.

aS​dA​23rA as​da'​e'ira

It is debatable whether the name symbols of Ælis k K are punctuation marks or not. Although there are arguments in favor of calling them punctuation marks, this text will not do so. With that taken into account, Ælis has only two punctuation marks:

  • a comma (,);
  • a period (.).

But the way in which these punctuation marks are used has little or nothing to do with the rules in English. For starters, using the comma and the period in Ælis is 100% optional. Speakers are free to establish texts completely void of punctuation marks. Instead, they are used purely from a focus on readability and aesthetics. Either way, they are used very sparsely.

  • The comma is based on reading rhythm and tempo. It is used when a writer wants to indicate a pause for breath. For this reason, the comma may appear more frequently in poetry than in regular texts. The comma is also a useful tool when quoting someone.
  • The period is based on content. They generally appear at the end of an entire paragraph, or otherwise in places where there is a switch in content from one topic to another.

Ælis uses no spaces. All root words, words and sentences are written as one continuous string. Line breaks may occur before or after any root word, but not within root words, and also not directly after a lisqa.

As an example, the following Ælis text has only one comma (marked in red), and one full stop (marked in blue). Compare that to the amount of commas and periods in its English translation:

hA​nW​nA​4rA​sA​iA​7tE​tA​iA​1mA​hA​rE​kfREDERIQ​gEZELK​eM​mA​lI​vW​eG​1lIS​hA​eL​eA​nA​3rA​lA​lW​iA​eG​1lIS​hA​qA​3rA​mO​3rA​eI​iW​lA​lW​hA​eG​eN​eM​aN​1mA​iA​7tE​iW,​tA​iR​aM​dI​3rA​iI​1mA​iA​7tE​hA​eM​eG​1lIS​tA​iI​eI​3rA​tA​eG​eN​iR​iS​eL​eA​nA​eM​rW​4rA​vW​lW​lA​1mA​hA​lI​iW. Hello to all of you. My name is Frederic Gesell, creator of the Ælis language. I like the structure of Ælis, and I also like writing this text for you. I hope that with regard to the language, you like learning it and reading about it just as much as I do creating it.

You have reached the end of this tutorial section!

The is a place were you can exercise what you've learned in the section .

The following root words are all root words.

aN1tE an'æte 'my place' here
aN2tE an'ete 'your place' there
aN3tE an'ite 'his/her place' there
aNlI anli 'origin place' point of departure, place of origin
aNiI anii 'target place' destination

The following root words are all root words.

The following words all relate to senses.

eGeN egen visual communication, i.e. reading/writing
eGeR eger sound communication, i.e. speaking/listening
eLeA elea abstract feeling, i.e. emotion
eLoI eloi concrete feeling, i.e. touch

These are the words for the 4 elements.

Which root words are these? Write the answer in Latin characters. Use lowercase letters only. For the "æ" character, you may use both æ and y.


Select the correct answers.

If nI ni means 'woman', and aQ1rAaS aq'æra'as means 'youth', then nIaQ1rAaS ni'aq'æra'as means:
And so, aQ1rAaSnI aq'æra'asni must mean:
What does aQaN aqan mean?

Which numbers are these? Write the Romanisation in the first box, and the numerals in the second. Don't forget the apostrophes if you need them! Use lowercase letters only. For the "æ" character, you may use both æ and y. For the "u̯" character, you may use both and uw.


Are the following numbers the same?

100qA æ'a'aqa 1 - 0 - 0
1d2D0qA ædedaqa 1 and 2 times 0
1001qA æ'a'a'æqa 1 - 0 - 0 - 1
1d2D01qA ædeda'æqa 1 and 2 times 0 and 1
2000qA e'a'a'aqa 2 - 0 - 0 - 0
2d4D0qA edodaqa 2 and 4 times 0

What do the following spatial indications mean?

aN1dA1rA an'æda'æra
aN2dA3rA an'eda'ira
aN4dA2rA an'oda'era
aN3dA2rA an'ida'era
aN0dA3rA an'ada'ira

What do the following words mean?

tW = 'color' 1qAtW æqa'tæ
qA1rAaN qa'æra'an
qA4rAtE qa'ora'te

How many words are there in the following sentences? Count the amount of function markers to find out.


How do you say the following question words in Ælis? Write the answers in the text boxes. For the secondary case letters, use the shift button. The Æ/æ character is located on the "w" key.

aNnE anne
aSnE asne
aRnE arne
aMnE amne
tEnE tene

While the was all about taking in new information, the focusses on you starting to produce Ælis output yourself. From a more practical/pragmatical point of view, the chapters here provide additional information about how to create words and sentences, applying what you've learned previously in ways you may not yet have thought of.

The root words presented in this section are very productive when it comes to creating vocabulary. These highly versatile root words can bind to many others, adding a lot of new elements to your toolbox.

lI and iI

lI and iI are two of the partition markers, as discussed in the chapter "", but they are also very useful tools for constructing words.

As suffixes

As suffixes, lI and iI mean 'first/initial' and 'last/final', respectively.

qAlI qali the first number qAiI qa'ii the last number
nIlI nili the first woman nIiI ni'ii the last woman
eIlI eili the first thought eIiI ei'ii the last thought

Also, they can be suffixed to mean "the beginning of (x)" and "the end of (x)".

eOlI eoli beginning of life birth eOiI eo'ii end of life death
As prefixes

When used as prefixes, the two particles become particularly interesting. They can be used to express change or transition. iI expresses the target of the change, or the final result; while lI expresses the where or what the word transitions out of. Simply put:

  • iI(x) = 'make/become more like (x);
  • lI(x) = 'make/become less like (x);

A few examples:

Base word Turn into Transition from
4tW otæ green iI​4tW ii'​otæ turn, paint green lI​4tW li'​otæ fade (from green)
eI​3rA ei'​ira intelligence, knowledge iI​eI​3rA ii'​ei'​ira learn, teach lI​eI​3rA li'​ei'​ira forget
qA​3rA qa'​ira many, much iI​qA​3rA ii​qa'​ira augment, multiply, increase lI​qA​3rA li​qa'​ira reduce, decrease
vE​3rA ve'​ira valuable, important iI​vE​3rA ii​ve'​ira to increase in value, to highlight, emphasize, make a big deal out of lI​vE​3rA li​ve'​ira decrease in value, to minimalize
aN​1dA​1rA an'​æda'​æra (near) left iI​aN​1dA​1rA ii'​an'​æda'​æra towards the left, leftward lI​aN​1dA​1rA li'​an'​æda'​æra (coming) from the left
aS​dA​2rA as​da'​era the present, now iI​aS​dA​2rA ii'​as​da'​era until now, up to here, so far lI​aS​dA​2rA li'​as​da'​era from now on
'concept, idea'

lIS is not only the root word found in the very name of the language. It can be used in combination with nearly every lexeme in order to make a reference to a paradigm or hypernym.


tE te person, human lIStE lis'te humanity, mankind
mA ma man, male lISmA lis'ma masculinity
nI ni woman, female lISnI lis'ni femininity
qO qo animal lISqO lis'qo fauna, animal kingdom
tW color lIStW lis'tæ color spectrum
'societal, manmade'

dE is a word that can be used to create any kind of word that relates to mankind and society. It appears in words that have to do with human inventions, products of human thought, and/or products of society. It is usually used as a suffix.


lO lo activity lOdE lode work, job
vE ve value vEdE vede money
tW color tWdE tæde paint
nW situation, context nWdE næde society, status
dW luminosity dWdE dæde lamp, (artificial) light
dI4rA di'ora demand, obligation dI4rAdE di'ora'de law
uE ue family uEdE uede inlaws, step family

The following vocabulary types have a unique approach that does not follow the regular word construction patterns. This means that you will probably not be able to derive the meaning of such words just by looking at the root words they are composed of.



Ælis has 7 base colors. The words are formed by attaching one of seven lisqa to the root word tW :

0tW atæ gray
1tW ætæ red
2tW etæ yellow
3tW itæ green
4tW otæ cyan
5tW u̯atæ blue
6tW u̯ætæ magenta / purple

Without any context, the colors above may be used to designate the corresponding colors. However, the words themselves technically refer to the entire spectrum of their particular hue:

0tW atæ grayscale / black & white
1tW ætæ shades of red
2tW etæ shades of yellow
3tW itæ shades of green
4tW otæ shades of cyan
5tW u̯atæ shades of blue
6tW u̯ætæ shades of magenta / purple

These base colors can receive the qualified root word dW to indicate one of five shades:

very dark
very bright

As such, Ælis distinguishes 35 basic colors:

0tWdW0rA atæ'dæ'ara black
0tWdW1rA atæ'dæ'æra dark gray
0tWdW2rA atæ'dæ'era gray
0tWdW3rA atæ'dæ'ira light gray
0tWdW4rA atæ'dæ'ora white
1tWdW0rA ætæ'dæ'ara dark red
1tWdW1rA ætæ'dæ'æra deep red
1tWdW2rA ætæ'dæ'era red
1tWdW3rA ætæ'dæ'ira light red
1tWdW4rA ætæ'dæ'ora faint red
2tWdW0rA etæ'dæ'ara dark yellow
2tWdW1rA etæ'dæ'æra deep yellow
2tWdW2rA etæ'dæ'era yellow
2tWdW3rA etæ'dæ'ira light yellow
2tWdW4rA etæ'dæ'ora faint yellow
3tWdW0rA itæ'dæ'ara dark green
3tWdW1rA itæ'dæ'æra deep green
3tWdW2rA itæ'dæ'era green
3tWdW3rA itæ'dæ'ira light green
3tWdW4rA itæ'dæ'ora faint green
4tWdW0rA otæ'dæ'ara dark cyan
4tWdW1rA otæ'dæ'æra deep cyan
4tWdW2rA otæ'dæ'era cyan
4tWdW3rA otæ'dæ'ira light cyan
4tWdW4rA otæ'dæ'ora faint cyan
5tWdW0rA u̯atæ'dæ'ara dark blue
5tWdW1rA u̯atæ'dæ'æra deep blue
5tWdW2rA u̯atæ'dæ'era blue
5tWdW3rA u̯atæ'dæ'ira light blue
5tWdW4rA u̯atæ'dæ'ora faint blue
6tWdW0rA u̯ætæ'dæ'ara dark magenta
6tWdW1rA u̯ætæ'dæ'æra deep magenta
6tWdW2rA u̯ætæ'dæ'era magenta
6tWdW3rA u̯ætæ'dæ'ira light magenta
6tWdW4rA u̯ætæ'dæ'ora faint magenta

Lisqa can be combined in order to define additional hues:

1tW æ shades of red
12tW æ'e shades of orange
2tW e shades of yellow
12tWdW0rA æ'etæ'dæ'ara dark brown
12tWdW1rA æ'etæ'dæ'æra brown
12tWdW2rA æ'etæ'dæ'era orange
12tWdW3rA æ'etæ'dæ'ira light orange
12tWdW4rA æ'etæ'dæ'ora faint orange
0tW a shades of gray
03tW a'i shades of pale green
3tW i shades of green
03tWdW0rA a'itæ'dæ'ara
03tWdW1rA a'itæ'dæ'æra
03tWdW2rA a'itæ'dæ'era
03tWdW3rA a'itæ'dæ'ira
03tWdW4rA a'itæ'dæ'ora

Not only that, but lisqa can also be combined in order to create other shades than the five standard ones:

1tWdW0rA ætæ'dæ'ara
1tWdW01rA ætæ'dæ'a'æra
1tWdW1rA ætæ'dæ'æra
1tWdW12rA ætæ'dæ'æ'era
1tWdW2rA ætæ'dæ'era
1tWdW23rA ætæ'dæ'e'ira
1tWdW3rA ætæ'dæ'ira
1tWdW34rA ætæ'dæ'i'ora
1tWdW4rA ætæ'dæ'ora

It is also possible to omit the first lisqa, and speak of color ranges in terms of brightness alone:

tWdW0rA tædæ'ara: very dark color(s)
tWdW1rA tædæ'æra: dark color(s)
tWdW2rA tædæ'era: regular color(s)
tWdW3rA tædæ'ira: bright color(s)
tWdW4rA tædæ'ora: very bright color(s)

generally understood to mean 'black' if context does not specify it otherwise. generally understood to mean 'white' if context does not specify it otherwise.

With this system, speakers have the freedom to construct essentially any colour they like.


Words for family members tend to consist of three root words:

  • a gender particle mA ma, nI ni, or tE te;
  • the fixed root word uE ue;
  • a lisra.

In this construction, the lisra play an exceptional role. They indicate generations:

2 younger generations
1 younger generation
same generation
1 older generation
2 older generations

With this construction, there are 15 basic words for family members.

mAuE4rA ma'ue'ora grandfather nIuE4rA ni'ue'ora grandmother tEuE4rA te'ue'ora grandparent
mAuE3rA ma'ue'ira father nIuE3rA ni'ue'ira mother tEuE3rA te'ue'ira parent
mAuE2rA ma'ue'era brother nIuE2rA ni'ue'era sister tEuE2rA te'ue'era sibling
mAuE1rA ma'ue'æra son nIuE1rA ni'ue'æra daughter tEuE1rA te'ue'æra child
mAuE0rA ma'ue'ara grandson nIuE0rA ni'ue'ara granddaughter tEuE0rA te'ue'ara grandchild

The vW may be used to link family members together, thus allowing the creation of more specific words for family members. This can be useful to indicate on which side of the family the member in question is:

nI​uE​3rA​vW​nI​uE​3rA ni​'ue​'ira​'​ni​'ue'​ira mother of mother
nI​uE​3rA​vW​mA​uE​3rA ni​'ue​'ira​'​ma​'ue'​ira mother of father

Lisra may be combined in a form of shorthand as well:

tE​uE​1rA​vW​tE​uE​2rA​vW​tE​uE​3rA te​'ue​'æra​'​te​'ue'​era​'​te​'ue'​ira child of sibling of parent

tE​uE​123rA te​'ue​'æ'e'ira cousin

Words for inlaws as well as stepfamily can be created by adding the root word dE de to any of the words above. Ælis does not distinguish between stepfamily and inlaws; both are seen as "family that is the result of a social construct" rather than "biological family". If you want to emphasize that the family member in question is biological, instead of dE de, add gO go to one of the words above.


The Ælis names for the countries in the world are not arbitrary. The following mechanism was applied.

Start with the 3‑letter ISO code.

Sort the list as follows:

a e i y o u w m n l c k q x g t d r h s z p b f v

Apply the following changes to the codes:

c q
k q
x q
j i
y i
w u

For double names, replace the last vowel of the second entry by the next one in the Ælis alphabet. Repeat as often as necessary.

After every code that ends in a consonant, add æ.

Between any adjacent consonants, add a.


Note: the following list is sorted according to the Ælis alphabet: a æ e i o u m n l q g t d r h s z p b f v

aUSW ausæ Australia
aUTW autæ Austria
aNADW anadæ Andorra
aLABW alabæ Albania
aGO ago Angola
aTAGW atagæ Antigua and Barbuda
aRE are United Arab Emirates
aRAMW aramæ Armenia
aRAGW aragæ Argentina
aZE aze Azerbaijan
aFAGW afagæ Afghanistan
eQU equ Ecuador
eGI egi Egypt
eTAHW etahæ Ethiopia
eRI eri Eritrea
eSATW esatæ Estonia
eSAPW esapæ Spain
iAMW iamæ Jamaica
iEMW iemæ Yemen
iORW ioræ Jordan
iNADW inadæ India
iTA ita Italy
iDANW idanæ Indonesia
iRANW iranæ Iran
iRALW iralæ Ireland
iRAQW iraqæ Iraq
iSARW isaræ Israel
iSALW isalæ Iceland
iPANW ipanæ Japan
oMANW omanæ Oman
uQARW uqaræ Ukraine
uGA uga Uganda
uRI uri Uruguay
uSA usa United States of America
uSAMW usamæ Samoa
uZABW uzabæ Uzbekistan
mAMARW mamaræ Myanmar
mANE mane Montenegro
mANAGW managæ Mongolia
mALI mali Mali
mALATW malatæ Malta
mAQO maqo Monaco
mAQADW maqadæ Macedonia
mADA mada Moldova
mADAGW madagæ Madagascar
mADAVW madavæ Maldives
mARATW maratæ Mauritania
mARW maræ Morocco
mAHALW mahalæ Marshall Islands
mEQW meqæ Mexico
mISW misæ Malaysia
mOZW mozæ Mozambique
mUI mui Malawi
mUSW musæ Mauritius
nAMW namæ Namibia
nALADW naladæ Netherlands
nAGA naga Nigeria
nARU naru Nauru
nAZALW nazalæ New Zealand
nAPALW napalæ Nepal
nERW neræ Niger
nIU niu Niue
nIQW niqæ Nicaragua
nORW noræ Norway
lAO lao Laos
lAQA laqa Saint Lucia
lAQW laqæ Sri Lanka
lATU latu Lithuania
lASO laso Lesotho
lABI labi Libya
lABANW labanæ Lebanon
lABARW labaræ Liberia
lAVA lava Latvia
lIE lie Liechtenstein
lUQV luqæ Luxembourg
qAMARW qamaræ Cameroon
qANA qana Saint Kitts and Nevis
qANW qanæ Canada
qAGAZW qagazæ Kyrgyzstan
qATW qatæ Qatar
qARI qari Costa Rica
qAHE qahe Switzerland
qAHAMW qahamæ Cambodia
qAHANW qahanæ China
qAHALW qahalæ Chile
qAZW qazæ Kazakhstan
qAZE qaze Czech Republic
qAPAVW qapavæ Cabo Verde
qAFW qafæ Central African Republic
qENW qenæ Kenya
qIRW qiræ Kiribati
qIWP qipæ Cyprus
qIVW qivæ Côte d'Ivoire
qOMW qomæ Comoros
qOLW qolæ Colombia
qOQW qoqæ Cook Islands
qOGW qogæ Congo Brazzaville
qODW qodæ Congo Kinshasa
qORW qoræ South Korea
qUTW qutæ Kuwait
qUBW qubæ Cuba
gAMABW gamabæ Gambia
gANAQW ganaqæ Equatorial Guinea
gANABW ganabæ Guinea-Bissau
gATAMW gatamæ Guatemala
gARAQW garaqæ Greece
gARADW garadæ Grenada
gAHA gaha Ghana
gABARW gabaræ United Kingdom
gABW gabæ Gabon
gEO geo Georgia
gINW ginæ Guinea
gUI gui Guyana
tALASW talasæ Timor-Leste
tAQAMW taqamæ Turkmenistan
tAQADW taqadæ Chad
tAGO tago Togo
tATO tato Trinidad and Tobago
tAHA taha Thailand
tAZA taza Tanzania
tIQW tiqæ Tajikistan
tONW tonæ Tonga
tUNW tunæ Tunisia
tANW tanæ Taiwan
tURW turæ Turkey
tUVW tuvæ Tuvalu
dAMA dama Dominica
dANAQW danaqæ Denmark
dAZA daza Algeria
dEU deu Germany
dIO dio Djibouti
dOMW domæ Dominican Republic
rOU rou Romania
rUA rua Rwanda
rUSW rusæ Russia
hANADW hanadæ Honduras
hATI hati Haiti
hARAVW haravæ Croatia
hUNW hunæ Hungary
sAU sau Saudi Arabia
sAMARW samaræ San Marino
sALE sale Sierra Leone
sALABW salabæ Solomon Islands
sALAVW salavæ El Salvador
sAGAPW sagapæ Singapore
sATAPW satapæ Sao Tome and Principe
sADANW sadanæ Sudan
sARABW sarabæ Serbia
sASADW sasadæ South Sudan
sAVANW savanæ Slovenia
sAVAQW savaqæ Slovakia
sENW senæ Senegal
sIQW siqæ Seychelles
sIRW siræ Syria
sOMW somæ Somalia
sUE sue Sweden
sURW suræ Suriname
sUZW suzæ Swaziland
zAMABW zamabæ Zambia
zAFW zafæ South Africa
zUE zue Zimbabwe
pANAGW panagæ Papua New Guinea
pANW panæ Panama
pALU palu Palau
pAQW paqæ Pakistan
pARI pari Paraguay
pARAQW paraqæ North Korea
pARATW paratæ Portugal
pAHALW pahalæ Philippines
pASE pase Palestine
pERW peræ Peru
pOLW polæ Poland
bALARW balaræ Belarus
bALAZW balazæ Belize
bAGADW bagadæ Bangladesh
bAGARW bagaræ Bulgaria
bATANW batanæ Bhutan
bADI badi Burundi
bARA bara Brazil
bARANW baranæ Brunei
bARABW barabæ Barbados
bAHARW baharæ Bahrain
bAHASW bahasæ Bahamas
bAFA bafa Burkina Faso
bENW benæ Benin
bELW belæ Belgium
bIHW bihæ Bosnia and Herzegovina
bOLW bolæ Bolivia
bUA bua Botswana
fARA fara France
fASAMW fasamæ Micronesia
fIO fio Fiji
fINW finæ Finland
vANAMW vanamæ Viet Nam
vAQATW vaqatæ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
vATW vatæ Vatican City State
vENW venæ Venezuela
vUTW vutæ Vanuatu

Function marking, which is the act of assigning syntactical roles to words in a sentence, is a more malleable kind of tool than you might have imagined. This section will elaborate on the corresponding chapter in the .

This page is an elaboration on the subject about . There are only four syntactical components in the Ælis syntax, which are the topic, patient, agent, and modifier. Each of these has its own individual role. But even though it might not seem so at first glance, there is actually great liberty in the way in which speakers may 'cast' information in syntactic functions and, by extension, sentences. This means that there is often more than one possibility to assign functions while still saying the same thing. Consider the sentence "there are men here". For this sentence, we'll need two lexical components:

  • mAma – man, men, male;
  • aN6tEan'u̯æte – 'our place', i.e. 'hereness', to be here, presence;

With only these components, at least five ways of assigning function markers are conceivable:

Topic Patient Agent Modifier Analytical translation
hA​aN​6tE ha'​an'​u̯æte iA​mA ia​ma This location corresponds to men.
hA​aN​6tE ha'​an'​u̯æte lA​mA la​ma There is 'hereness' exerted by men.
hA​mA ha​ma iR​aN​6tE ir​an'​u̯æte Men (are) in this location.
iA​mA ia​ma iR​aN​6tE ir​an'​u̯æte (Something occurs to) men in this location.
lA​mA la​ma iR​aN​6tE ir​an'​u̯æte (Something is done by) men in this location.

It has so far been stated that the role of every single word in an Ælis sentence must be marked with a function marker. While this holds true for the vast majority of cases however, there is one notable exception. In the case of one - word sentences, it is allowed, common, and even advised to omit the function marker. The sole reason for this is conciseness: if sentences contain only one word, it is often either irrelevant (cf. the previous chapter) or derivable from context which syntactical function this word would require. Omitting the function marker creates an utterance with one less root word, therefore a shorter and more efficient one.

The following is a list of common phrases to get you started.

Common one-word phrases without a function marker
Word/sentence Rom. Literal meaning Thought pattern Contextual meaning
nA4rA na'ora perfection May (things that are) perfect happen to you Hello!
nWnE næne which situation Which situation do you find yourself in? How are you?
nWnA3rA næna'ira good situation My situation is good. I'm well.
gI3rA gi'ira much gratitude I feel much gratitude. Thank you!
dI3rA di'ira desire, will I do/did it willingly. You're welcome!
eLeAnA3rA eleana'ira happiness Happiness befalls me I'm glad. Nice to meet you.
aD3rA ad'ira high accuracy Yes (answering a question).
aD1rA ad'æra low accuracy No (answering a question).
rEnE rene which name What is (your) name?
rEktOMK re'tom name Tom (My) name (is) Tom.
iSnE isne Which consequence What is the consequence to the current situation? So? What (do we do) now?
Posterior function marking

Here is a situation bound to occur from time to time in spoken discourse: what happens if someone uses a one-word sentence without a function marker, but in hindsight realizes that they wish to add more words to the sentence? As sentences with more than one word in them do require a function marker, it is possible to add a function marker after the one-word sentence has already been uttered. The formulation to use is

tA ta + (function marker) + (explanation) + iU iu

Use this trick whenever necessary to avoid confusion, and in some cases, even solve ambiguity:

kqARIK...​tA​hA​rE​iU​iA​1nI (re)qari…​ta​ha​re'​iu ia'​æni Cariis what my name is.
kqARIK...​tA​hA​aN​oW​0rA​iU​iA​1nI (re)qari…​ta​ha'​an​oæ'​ara'​iu ia'​æni Costa Ricais where I'm from.

The is the encyclopaedia of Ælis. Here, you'll find a collection of various grammar-related topics.

The Ælis writing system is featural, as it visually separates the different root words from one another. Unfortunately however, it is not always possible to write Ælis in eGeN1lIS egen'ælis, its proper script. When romanising Ælis, i.e. writing it in Latin characters, there are a few rules to follow. The rules were designed in a way that tries to find the golden mean between functionality, readability, and aesthetics.

This is an example of a short Ælis text with its romanised version.


ha​næ​na​'ora​'sa ia​'u̯ete ta ia​'æma ha​re​'frederiq​'gezel em​ma​li​væ​'eg​'ælis ha​'el​ea​na​'ira la​læ ia​'eg​'ælis ha​qa​'ira​'mo​'ira​'ei​'iæ la​læ ha​'egen em​an​'æma ia​'u̯ete​'iæ, ta ir​am​di​'ira li​'æma ia​'u̯ete ha​'em​eg​'ælis ta​'ii​'ei​'ira ta​'eg​en ir​is​el​ea​na emræ​'ora vælæ la​'æma ha​li​'iæ

An apostrophe is placed
  • after every root word that follows a ;
  • after every three-letter root word;
  • before every number concept;
  • before and after any given name, borrowed word or otherwise non-standard Ælis word (i.e. a word that would receive the name tag); as well as in between any two parts of such a word (e.g.: between a first name and a last name);
  • between vowels that belong to different root words.
A space is placed
  • after every comma or full stop;
  • after the opening sentence bracket ;
  • after the closing sentence bracket , except if there is a comma or full stop;
  • before the separator ta;
  • before any of the primary function markers ha, la, ia, and ir.

If a word gets too long according to the writer's preference, a space or apostrophe may optionally be placed before any of the partition markers em, , lo, io, li and ii to increase readability.

If any rule would create a space or apostrophe before the first word of a paragraph, it is ignored.

If overlap of any two rules occurs
  • two spaces turn into one space;
  • two apostrophes turn into one apostrophe;
  • the combination of an adjacent space and apostrophe turn into one space.

If the a-e ligature "æ" proves difficult or impossible to make, it may be replaced by the letter y, not by ae.


If the letter u with the inverted breve below diacritic (), used in the transcription of the high range lisqa, proves difficult or impossible to make, it may be replaced by uw (do not omit it).

  • A line break may occur between any two root words, with exception of the lisqa.
  • A line may only break before any of the lisqa, not after.
  • If a line break occurs at a location where any of the previous rules has created an apostrophe, it replaces the apostrophe.
  • Capital / uppercase letters may be used deliberately without consequence.

Each Ælis root words has a class. There is a total of 6 classes of root words. The 6 classes of root words can additionally be grouped into two categories:

  • Classes 1, 2, and 3 belong to the category of lexemes. This means that the root words in these classes all have a lexical value, like 'dog', 'green', or 'adventure'. In other words, lexemes are like words you generally encounter in a dictionary.
  • Classes 4, 5 and 6 belong to the category of structuralizers. This means that the root words in these classes all have a grammatical value. They regulate the function and structure of words and sentences rather than adding a separate lexical value. Any type of meaning that structuralizers can add to a word or sentence comes in form of an added value to lexemes in their vecinity.

Class 1 root words, or replete lexemes, are the most ordinary (and also most abundant) of root words. These root words are called 'replete' because lisra cannot attach to them.

Replete lexemes fully adhere to the step ladder principle. Note that this is the class with the most root words in it. Examples:

eg en


am ma


ub ei

thinking effort

Class 2 root words, or qualifiable lexemes, are root words that can be extended by lisra, in contrast to roots. The qualifiable lexemes can be used independently, in which case their meaning will always span a linear continuum ranging from one extreme to another. For example:


Connecting one of the lisra to a root will highlight one point on the scale. For example:


The qualifiable lexemes adhere to the step ladder principle in regular fashion, unless they are followed by a lisra. If so, then they will govern 2 root words instead of just 1:

  • the lisra that follows;
  • the the first root word to follow the lisra.

For example:

aq' ira

length + much

big length

aq' an

length + space


3rA aN
aq' ira an

length + much
length + space

big distance

This class is called the class of the unrealized lexemes. "Unrealized" or "not yet realized" means that these root words cannot be used independently. Although they have a meaning, which is always the same, their exact value and meaning depend on the root word to immediately follow it. The catergory of root words corresponds to the category of the lisqa, meaning that there are only 10 root words in this class.

The lisqa are dependent of the following root word instead of the preceding one. For example:

æ lis


e te


i qa


o ra

5th lisra

The lisqa themselves do not govern. They are subordinate to the root word that follows, which in turn is subordinate to the root word that precedes the lisqa.

eg' æ lis

Ælis language

an' e te

there (where you are)

ni' i qa

the 3rd woman

dæ' o ra

very bright

It is therefore perhaps easiest to simply see a lisqa and its following root word as one component that follows the step ladder principle in regular fashion:

eg' ælis

Ælis language

an' ete

there (where you are)

ni' iqa

the 3rd woman

dæ' ora

very bright

Class 4 structuralizers are also called function markers. They have a syntactical function. They precede words and assign them with a syntactical role or function. Drawing analogies with a case system, the primary function markers play the same role as case endings do, with the difference being that firstly, they precede the word they modify rather than follow it, and secondly, that the function markers are not inflections but independent root words. The function markers assign one of four cases to a word:

  • Topic function;
  • Agent function;
  • Patient function;
  • Modifier function.

See the corresponding chapter in the .

The function markers outrank any of the lexemes and any of the partition markers. The appearance of these root words within a sentence triggers the start of a new step ladder.

ir am di' ira


ha na' ora

perfect situation

la' æte

from me

ia' u̯ete

to you

"I wish you the best."

Class 5 is the class of partition markers. These root words have a morphological function. They segment words into partitions, and assign roles to both the preceding and following partition.

The partition markers stand out because their range of influence extends to all lexemes in their vecinity. In practice, this means that the partition markers allow entire groups of root words to be treated as one, and make it subordinate to another group of root words. For example:

qo re mi
æ'etæ' dæ' æra
qoremi em' æ'etæ'dæ'æra
brown cat

Another example:

an' eda' ira
up, above
an oæ' ara
an'eda'ira væ' anoæ'ara
on (top of) the house

Among eath other, the root words also have a rank. Click here to learn more about ranks.

The partition markers have the following ranks:

Rank 1
eM em characteristic
Rank 2
iO io passivity
lO lo activity
vW referent
Rank 3
iI ii target
lI li origin

This ranking becomes relevant only in situations where two (or more) root words are right next to each other.

  • If the root words have the same ranking, then the root with the higher rank will be the partition marker. The other will 'decay' into an ordinary root word within the partition. For example:
nA3rA na'ira good
vW compared to (rank 2)
iI ii going towards (rank 3)
4tW otæ green

partition part. marker partition
nA3rA vW iI4tW
na'ira' væ' ii'otæ

better than turning green

  • If the two root words have a different ranking, there is principally an ambiguity. The ambiguity may be resolved, according to the preference of the speaker, by adding an eM em marker. For example:
lOdE lode work / job
iI ii goal, end (rank 3)
lI li done by (rank 3)
3mA ima he, him

partition part. marker partition
lOdEiI eM lI3mA
lode'ii' em li'ima

the last job that he did

The elements in this class are called free markers. The free markers can play roles on both the sentence and word levels, depending on how or where they are used. Although they will always play the same role, the effects on the rest of the morphosyntactical structure varies. This class is the smallest class, as it contains only two elements: the sentence bracket (which consists of two root words), and the separator particle.

If prefixed directly to a class 4 root word, then the separator will outrank that root word. This causes the preceding consistuents to be separated from the following ones, creating two separate sentences.
Otherwise, the separator will set the hierarchical level of the first root to follow equal to the first root word of the preceding partition.
Sentence bracket
The sentence bracket allows entire new sentences to be built within other words. This means that a sentence bracket may contain all other classes of root words, and will automatically rank higher than them. The bracket itself, however, is immediately subordinate to the last root word to precede it.
ha' el ea na' ora
perfect feeling
ia' æma
to me
lW iW
hA iA
eN 1mA
la ha' en em' eni' ia' æma'
by the fact that I see you

"I am delighted to see you."

The following is a list of grammatical terms with their definitions. Pay attention to the fact that the definition of some terms for the Ælis language may differ from other languages.

Especially terms like "word" and "sentence".

Term Description See also
activity one of the six partitions.
activity marker root word lO lo that turns the following partition into an activity of the preceding partition.
agent one of the four syntactic functions.
agent marker root word lA la that assigns agent function to the following word.
characteristic one of the six partitions.
characteristic marker root word eM em that turns the following partition into a characteristic of the preceding partition.
closing sentence bracket one of the two sentence brackets.
exclamation marker root word sA sa that turns the preceding partition into an exclamation.
free marker name given to the category of root words.
function marker name given to the category of root words.
lexeme word with a lexical value, like a dictionary entry. In Ælis, root word classes 1, 2, and 3 are lexemes.
lisqa Ælis word for 'number concept'. Special category of words.
lisra Ælis word for 'qualifier'. Special category of words.
modifier one of the four syntactic functions.
modifier marker root word iR ir that assigns modifier function to the following word.
morpheme smallest meaningful unit of a language. In Ælis, it is synonymous to 'particle', 'syllable', and 'root word'. Wikipedia
name symbols set of characters k K that is placed around names and other non-Ælis words.
number concept see "lisqa".
opening sentence bracket one of the two sentence brackets.
ordinary root word any root word not enclosed in name symbols and not pertaining to .
origin one of the six partitions.
origin marker root word lI li that turns the following partition into an origin of the preceding partition.
partition any combination of adjacent lexemes
partition marker name given to the category of root words.
passivity one of the six partitions.
passivity marker root word iO io that turns the following partition into a passivity of the preceding partition.
patient one of the four syntactic functions.
patient marker root word iA ia that assigns patient function to the following word.
primary case letter type of letter, used as the first letter of any non- root word.
qualifiable lexeme name given to the category of root words.
qualifier see "lisra".
question marker root word nE ne that turns the preceding partition into a question.
're' symbols see "name symbols".
referent one of the six partitions.
referent marker root word vW that turns the following partition into a referent of the preceding partition.
replete lexeme name given to the category of root words.
root word any combination of letters that forms one meaningful unit together. In Ælis, 'root word' is synonymous to 'particle', 'morpheme', and 'syllable'.
secondary case letter type of letter, used to reflect the sounds of any non- root word except the first.
sentence any group of functions not separated by tA ta.
sentence bracket pair of root words lW and iW , used to create subordinate sentences.
separator root word tA ta that separates sentences and partitions from other ones.
structuralizer root word with a grammatical value. In Ælis, root word classes 4, 5, and 6 are structuralizers.
syllable unit of speech sounds. In Ælis, it is synonymous to 'particle', 'morpheme', and 'root word'.
target one of the six partitions.
target marker root word iI ii that turns the following partition into a target of the preceding partition.
topic one of the four syntactic functions.
topic marker root word hA ha that assigns topic function to the following word.
unrealized lexeme name given to the category of root words.
word any group of root words not separated by a root word.
Letters of the alphabet

See also: .

Term Description
aie name of the letter a a.
aio name of the letter A secondary case variant of aie – a a.
alu name of the letter L secondary case variant of æla – l l.
aqa name of the letter q q.
aqæ name of the letter Q secondary case variant of aqa – q q.
asi name of the letter s s.
asi'asi name of the digraph ss ss.
avo name of the letter V secondary case variant of uva – v v.
æoa name of the letter W secondary case variant of æoi – w æ.
æoi name of the letter w æ.
æbæ name of the letter B secondary case variant of ibæ – b b.
ægu name of the letter g g.
æla name of the letter l l.
æti name of the letter T secondary case variant of etæ – t t.
æze name of the letter z z.
æze'æze name of the digraph zz zz.
enu name of the letter N secondary case variant of ine – n n.
enu'enu name of the digraph NN secondary case variant of ine'ine – nn nn.
epo name of the letter t te.
eri name of the letter R secondary case variant of ore – r r.
etæ name of the letter t te.
eue name of the letter E secondary case variant of euo – e e.
euo name of the letter e e.
eze name of the letter Z secondary case variant of æze – z z.
eze'eze name of the digraph ZZ secondary case variant of æze'æze – zz zz.
iae name of the letter I secondary case variant of iau – i i.
iau name of the letter i i.
ibæ name of the letter b b.
ido name of the letter d d.
ihu name of the letter H secondary case variant of uhi – h h.
ine name of the letter n n.
ine'ine name of the digraph nn n.
isa name of the letter S secondary case variant of asi – s s.
isa'isa name of the digraph SS secondary case variant of asi'asi – ss ss.
oæa name of the letter o o.
oæu name of the letter O secondary case variant of oæa – o o.
oda name of the letter D secondary case variant of ido – d d.
ofu name of the letter f f.
omi name of the letter M secondary case variant of umo – m m.
opo name of the letter P secondary case variant of epo – p p.
ore name of the letter r r.
uæi name of the letter U secondary case variant of ueæ – o o.
ueæ name of the letter u u.
ufe name of the letter F secondary case variant of ofu – f f.
ugæ name of the letter G secondary case variant of ægu – g g.
uhi name of the letter h h.
umo name of the letter m m.
uva name of the letter v v.
Class 1 Class 2 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6
  • Click the filter buttons above to show root words of a specific class. Note: the root words are not in this list, because they are not considered to be 'ordinary root words'. See for more info.
  • Hover over the root words to find out what they mean.
  • Click the root words for full details.

Welcome to the , a place which stores an assortiment of projects realized in the Ælis language.

Should you have created your own Ælis content(like texts, images, or anything else), submit it to binz . nakama @ gmail . com and get it featured on the page!

If you are interested, you can download the Ælis .ttf font here. The table below shows which keys will produce which letters on a standard Western keyboard.

Input Output
Key Description Character Description
a lowercase letter a a primary case aie
w lowercase letter w w primary case æoi
e lowercase letter e e primary case euo
i lowercase letter i i primary case iau
o lowercase letter o o primary case oæa
u lowercase letter u u primary case ueæ
m lowercase letter m m primary case umo
n lowercase letter n n primary case ine
l lowercase letter l l primary case æla
q lowercase letter q q primary case aqa
g lowercase letter g g primary case ægu
t lowercase letter t t primary case etæ
d lowercase letter d d primary case ido
r lowercase letter r r primary case ore
h lowercase letter h h primary case uhi
s lowercase letter s s primary case asi
z lowercase letter z z primary case æze
p lowercase letter p p primary case epo
b lowercase letter b b primary case ibæ
f lowercase letter f f primary case ofu
v lowercase letter v v primary case uva
A uppercase letter a A secondary case aie
W uppercase letter w W secondary case æoi
E uppercase letter e E secondary case euo
I uppercase letter i I secondary case iau
O uppercase letter o O secondary case oæa
U uppercase letter u U secondary case ueæ
M uppercase letter m M secondary case umo
N uppercase letter n N secondary case ine
L uppercase letter l L secondary case æla
Q uppercase letter q Q secondary case aqa
G uppercase letter g G secondary case ægu
T uppercase letter t T secondary case etæ
D uppercase letter d D secondary case ido
R uppercase letter r R secondary case ore
H uppercase letter h H secondary case uhi
S uppercase letter s S secondary case asi
Z uppercase letter z Z secondary case æze
P uppercase letter p P secondary case epo
B uppercase letter b B secondary case ibæ
F uppercase letter f F secondary case ofu
V uppercase letter v V secondary case uva
0 number zero 0 low range lisqa 0
1 number one 1 low range lisqa 1
2 number two 2 low range lisqa 2
3 number three 3 low range lisqa 3
4 number four 4 low range lisqa 4
5 number five 5 high range lisqa 0
6 number six 6 high range lisqa 1
7 number seven 7 high range lisqa 2
8 number eight 8 high range lisqa 3
9 number nine 9 high range lisqa 4
k lowercase letter k k opening re symbol
K uppercase letter k K closing re symbol
. period . period
, comma , comma

In a text editor, the Ælis font renders best if you set the line height to 85%, and you place a 'zero-width space' after every root word. Do not justify your text.

There are various symbols that can be used to visually represent the Ælis language.

Flag of the Ælis language

The flag has an unambiguous definition, which means that one ought to be able to draw the design with exact precision in any size, even without an illustrative example to copy from. The definition is as follows:

"The flag of the Ælis language has a rectangular shape, with a height-width ratio of 2: 3. It is diagonally divided from the top hoist-side corner. The bottom triangle is plain teal. The top triangle is divided into five vertical, equally wide bands, the band on the hoist-side being black, the band on the fly-side being white, and the remaining bands being equally distributed gradients from one side to the other.

The upper half of the rightmost band features the '"Æ" lisqa symbol' in the same teal colour as the bottom triangle. The symbol has the shape of a sans-serif upside-down letter V; with a sharp tip pointing upwards and two legs going downwards, flat at the bottom. The symbol spans the surface of an isosceles triangle, horizontally centred within the band. The total width of the symbol is 3/25 of the width of the flag, each leg is 3/100 of the flag width wide. The inside of each leg is parallel to the outside of each leg. The height of the symbol is 1/4 of the total flag height. The top of the symbol is at 1/8 of the total flag height, measured from the top."

The colors of the flag are defined as follows:

Name: Black
Hex: #000000
Hsl: 0 0% 0%
Used for: the left-most vertical band
Name: Gray 25
Hex: #404040
Hsl: 0 0% 25%
Used for: the 2nd vertical band from the left
Name: Gray 50
Hex: #7F7F7F
Hsl: 0 0% 50%
Used for: the middle vertical band
Name: Gray 75
Hsl: 0 0% 75%
Used for: the 2nd vertical band from the right
Name: White
Hsl: 0 0% 100%
Used for: the right-most vertical band
Name: Teal
Hex: #008080
Hsl: 180 100% 25%
Used for: the "Æ" symbol and the bottom triangle
Vertical ribbon

The ribbon of the Ælis language has a relatively high but not precisely defined height to width ratio. It is divided into 5 bands of equal proportion with the following respective colours:

Name: Teal
Hex: #008080
Hsl: 180 100% 25%
Name: White
Hsl: 0 0% 100%
Name: Gray 67
Hsl: 0 0% 67%
Name: Gray 33
Hex: #545454
Hsl: 0 0% 33%
Name: black
Hex: #000000
Hsl: 0 0% 0%

The ribbon has two presentation forms. The horizontal presentation has horizontal bands. The top band is teal and the bottom band is black. In the vertical presentation, the ribbon is rotated 90° clockwise: the leftmost band (hoist-side) is black, the rightmost band (fly-side) is teal.

If the height to width ratio of a horizontally presented ribbon is between 1: 3 and 1: 5, or between 3: 1 and 5: 1 for a vertically presented ribbon; or also if the ribbon is visually presented as a flat surface, for example in a digitally projected or otherwise tautly suspended form, the ribbon may optionally have an emblem in the middle. The emblem consists of a white foreground circle with the the "Æ" lisqa symbol in teal within. The diameter of the circle equals the sum of the 5 stacked bands. The Æ symbol has a height of 3/5 the height of the ribbon, but otherwise has the same shape and proportions as in the flag. It is both horizontally and vertically centred within the circle.

Horizontal ribbon

Despite their apparent simplicity, the designs of both the flag and the ribbons contain various references to the language itself.

The upside-down letter 'V'
A representation of the lisqa symbol for the "Æ" sound. It is a reference to the unique lisqa feature of Ælis, as well as a reference to the sound itself, abundant in Ælis but uncommon in other languages; as well as the first sound and letter in the name 1lIS ælis.
The teal color
The teal color represents the 'middle' in two ways. Firstly, the hue of the color is 180: this is the middle hue of the hue spectrum, which goes from 0 to 360. Secondly, in rgb terms, the green and blue values are both at 128, which is exactly in the middle between the minimum value 0, and the maximum value 256.
The teal color is used to symbolize that Ælis aims to be at the centre of things; a language amidst the people.
The number of bands
The five bands reflect the 5 elements of the lisra system. In the flag, the five bands' hues are equally spread between black and white, reflecting the effect of the lisra themselves on the language. In the ribbon, although there are only 4 shades of gray, there are 5 bands in total.

Binz ft. Nirean & Xel Insanity (Original Mix)

Binz & Mysticall ft. Nirean & Xel Insanity ("Road through Sonora Desert" Remix)

Binz ft. Nirean & Xel - Insanity(Original Mix)

An R&B/Triphop song performed in English, with a verse in Ælis. The verse starts at around 3:10 and lasts until around 3:40.

Nirean, Binz
Guitar solo
September 2014
Binz & Mysticall ft. Nirean & Xel - Insanity("Road through Sonora Desert" Remix)

A Trance/chillout remix of the original version. The Ælis verse starts at around 2:40 and lasts until around 3:01.

Binz, Mysticall
Guitar solo
March 2015

You can watch the Youtube tutorial videos on the Ælis language here. Pick a lesson in the list below, and click the icon to watch.

Lesson 1 Alphabet and writing

Lesson 2 Basic vocabulary

Lesson 3 Lisqa

Lesson 4 Counting and personal pronouns

Lesson 5 Qualifiers

Lesson 6 Time and space

Lesson 7 Plurals

Lesson 8 Names

Lesson 9 Countries

Lesson 10 Macrostructure of sentences

Lesson 11 The agent, topic, and patient triad

Lesson 12 The modifier

Lesson 13 Characteristic and referent

Lesson 14 The sentence bracket

Lesson 15 The step ladder principle

Lesson 16 The separator

Lesson 17 Questions

Lesson 18 Hi, my name is…

Lesson 19 In-word connectors

Lesson 20 Revision

Lesson 21 Alphabet (revisited)

Lesson 22 Vocabulary (revisited)

Questions, remarks, or other kinds of feedback? ⇒ binz . nakama @ gmail . com
manner method fashion way
how with which "–ly"
turns following root(s) into adverb
space place location position
spatial placed located positioned
be (at) be located (at) be positioned (at)
where in on at
size length
small size
average size
big size
frequency iteration repitition
no frequency
never occurring
low frequency seldomness rareness
rarely seldom
average frequency
occasional sporadical
occasionally sporadically regularly
high frequency
often occurring
continuousness constance
continuous constant incessant non-stop
always constantly incessantly
(level of) truth (level of) accuracy (level of) applicability (level of) precision
utter lie total inaccuracy
completely inaccurate
not at all not in the least
inaccuracy untruth
wrong inaccurate
not really not quite
not true nor untrue
in some ways yes somewhat
truth accuracy correctness precision
true accurate correct precise
accurately correctly
yes (answer)
complete truth complete accuracy complete correctness high precision
completely true completely accurate completely correct very precise
very precisely
reason cause
be caused by be the consequence of
why because (of)
temporal time-related
when at (time) on (date) in (year)
imagination abstraction
imaginary abstract
thought cognition (level of) intelligence (level of) knowledge
obliviousness stupidity
oblivious stupid
make a fool of oneself
unawareness dumbness unknowledge
unaware dumb unknowledgeable uninformed unintelligent
not know
basic knowledge
know a bit (about)
intelligence smartness awareness
intelligent smart wise aware well-genermed
know a thing or two (about) know
geniusness brilliance
genius brilliant
life existence
alive existential existing
live exist be
vision sight observation
visual observational
see watch observe
Characteristic marker
adjective or adverb of previous partition.
sense feeling perception
sensory felt perceived
sense feel perceive
communication language
communicative linguistic
communicate convey
communicatively linguistically
sound audio
sound-related auditory
hear listen
Patient marker
Assigns patient function to all following root words until the next root word.
Closing sentence bracket
Closes a subordinate clause previously opened by an opening sentence bracket.
Target marker
target, destination, or receiver of previous partition.
Passivity marker
target, destination, or receiver of following partition.
aforementioned previous
aforementioned previous
Modifier marker
Assigns modifier function to all following root words until the next root word.
consequence effect correlation result outcome
lead to entail correlate to result in cause
dynamics, change
standstill idleness stability
still idle stable immobile
not move not change reside remain in place
tranquility ease
calm tranquil
normal movement
moving normally
movement change business
moving changing busy
move change
turbulence turmoil revolution chaos havoc
turbulent chaotic
revolt tremble
2 generations younger (grandchildren)
1 generation younger (children)
same generation (siblings)
1 generation older (parents)
2 generations older (grandparents)
body shape form
energy (amount of) power (amount of) force (amount of) effort
powerless forceless with drained energy
stand no chance (against)
moderate strength
moderately strong
strength power force energy
strong powerful forceful energetic
power (through) force
man male
manly male
quality (opinion-based, subjective)
terribleness horrendousness the worst
terrible horrendous worst pessimal
badness evil
bad evil disadvantageous
good advantageous opportune
perfection the best
perfect optimal best
Question marker
urges conversation partner to be more specific about previous partition.
situation context circumstance surroundings
situational contextual circumstantial surrounding
be surrounded by reside (within the context of)
within (the context of)
woman female
womanly female
Agent marker
Assigns agent function to all following root words until the next root word.
Opening sentence bracket
Dominant over all root words that follow, until the closing sentence bracket ends the subclause.
Subordinate to the last root word that precedes it.
Opens a subordinate clause, which may contain root words.
Origin marker
source, origin, sender or 'doer' of previous partition.
concept paradigm '-ness'
conceptual paradigmatic
Activity marker
source, origin, sender or 'doer' of following partition.
following next
number amount quantity
no none (of the)
something a few
some few
moderate amount
a lot much
everything all
every all (of the)
instance example element speciment
for instance for example
earth soil
(level of) appreciation (level of) gratitude (level of) thankfulness
lack of appreciation
very unappreciative
Thanks for nothing!
little appreciation
unappreciative unthankful ungrateful
Gee, thanks. (ironic)
some appreciation
mildly thankful
gratitude thankfulness appreciation
grateful thankful appreciative
thank appreciate
Thank you!
much gratitude
very grateful
Thank you very much!
natural original
If the following root word is a root word, it marks the end of a sentence. Otherwise, it marks the end of a partition.
person human mankind
axis (straight) line dimension
(level of) brightness
deep darkness lack of light
very dark pitch black
darkness dimness
dark dim
some light
dimly lit
intense brightness
blindingly bright
blind (by light)
society policits social construct product of man
social societal political manmade
volition (amount of) desire
prohibited forbidden not allowed
prohibit forbid not allow may not
discouragement dissuasiveness
discouraged advised against frowned upon
discourage advise against frown upon dissuade shouldn't
allowance indifference
allowed indifferent
allow can may
encouragement desire preference will
encouraged desirable preferred
encourage desire prefer should ought to
You're welcome!
demand obligation
demanded obligatory mandatory
demand obligate must have to
day (24h)
of a day in a day
range extent class level degree
(level of) resemblence
opposite contrary heavy contrast
opposite contrary
oppose heavily contrast
oppositely contrarily
on the contrary
difference contrast
different contrasting
differ contrast
bear no resemblance nor contrast
similarity resemblance
similar resembling
identical same
just like likewise
name title designation
named titled called designated
name call designate
Topic marker
Assigns topic function to all following root words until the next root word.
thing object fact
factual objective
Exclamation marker
highlights the previous partition as the focus of an exclamation; draws extra attention to the partition within the sentence.
extreme cold absolute zero
cold chill
cold cool chilly
moderate temperature
warmth heat
warm hot
extreme heat
very hot scorching
(level of) humor, diversion
deep serenity
dead serious not at all funny
swear not amuse at all not kid around be very serious
no kidding! I swear!
seriousness serenity
serious serene unamused
relaxation light-heartedness
relaxed light-hearted
joke fun humour amusement entertainment joy joyfulness happiness
funny humourous amused not serious entertained joyful happy
joke kid amuse entertain
just kidding!
crack up
Referent marker
provides a context, frame or point of reference for the previous partition.
value (factual, measurable)
worthlessness garbage junk
mediocre value
somewhat valuable
high value
valuable cherished
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